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Table of Contents: February 2010

COVER

Fungipod protrusions on human immature dendritic cells.

Image Credit: Aaron K. Neumann and Ken Jacobson, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Issue Image

Dendritic cells use the C-type lectin CD206 (Mannose Receptor) to recognize fungal cells. Neumann and Jacobson (doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000760) report the discovery of the fungipod, a novel protrusive structure triggered on dendritic cells after CD206 engagement by yeast. Fungipods are long, conical motile structures with abundant F-actin, as shown in this projection image of a phalloidin-stained dendritic cell bearing several fungipods. Both S. cerevisiae and some pathogenic Candida species induce fungipods.

Opinion

Caspase-1 Activation via Rho GTPases: A Common Theme in Mucosal Infections?

Andreas J. Müller, Claudia Hoffmann, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt

Pearls

Review

IL-1β Processing in Host Defense: Beyond the Inflammasomes

Mihai G. Netea, Anna Simon, Frank van de Veerdonk, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Jos W. M. Van der Meer, Leo A. B. Joosten

Research Articles

HIV Controller CD4+ T Cells Respond to Minimal Amounts of Gag Antigen Due to High TCR Avidity

Benoît Vingert, Santiago Perez-Patrigeon, Patricia Jeannin, Olivier Lambotte, Faroudy Boufassa, Fabrice Lemaître, William W. Kwok, Ioannis Theodorou, Jean-François Delfraissy, Jacques Thèze, Lisa A. Chakrabarti , for the ANRS EP36 HIV Controllers Study Group

Genome-Wide mRNA Expression Correlates of Viral Control in CD4+ T-Cells from HIV-1-Infected Individuals

Margalida Rotger, Kristen K. Dang, Jacques Fellay, Erin L. Heinzen, Sheng Feng, Patrick Descombes, Kevin V. Shianna, Dongliang Ge, Huldrych F. Günthard, David B. Goldstein, Amalio Telenti , The Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Peptides Presented by HLA-E Molecules Are Targets for Human CD8+ T-Cells with Cytotoxic as well as Regulatory Activity

Simone A. Joosten, Krista E. van Meijgaarden, Pascale C. van Weeren, Fatima Kazi, Annemieke Geluk, Nigel D. L. Savage, Jan W. Drijfhout, Darren R. Flower, Willem A. Hanekom, Michèl R. Klein, Tom H. M. Ottenhoff

Transit through the Flea Vector Induces a Pretransmission Innate Immunity Resistance Phenotype in Yersinia pestis

Viveka Vadyvaloo, Clayton Jarrett, Daniel E. Sturdevant, Florent Sebbane, B. Joseph Hinnebusch

A Major Role for the Plasmodium falciparum ApiAP2 Protein PfSIP2 in Chromosome End Biology

Christian Flueck, Richard Bartfai, Igor Niederwieser, Kathrin Witmer, Blaise T. F. Alako, Suzette Moes, Zbynek Bozdech, Paul Jenoe, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Till S. Voss

Vaccinia Protein F12 Has Structural Similarity to Kinesin Light Chain and Contains a Motor Binding Motif Required for Virion Export

Gareth W. Morgan, Michael Hollinshead, Brian J. Ferguson, Brendan J. Murphy, David C. J. Carpentier, Geoffrey L. Smith

Efficacy of the New Neuraminidase Inhibitor CS-8958 against H5N1 Influenza Viruses

Maki Kiso, Shuku Kubo, Makoto Ozawa, Quynh Mai Le, Chairul A. Nidom, Makoto Yamashita, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Quantitative Comparison of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 Cell-to-Cell Infection with New Replication Dependent Vectors

Dmitriy Mazurov, Anna Ilinskaya, Gisela Heidecker, Patricia Lloyd, David Derse

Differentiation, Distribution and γδ T Cell-Driven Regulation of IL-22-Producing T Cells in Tuberculosis

Shuyu Yao, Dan Huang, Crystal Y. Chen, Lisa Halliday, Gucheng Zeng, Richard C. Wang, Zheng W. Chen

Broadly Protective Monoclonal Antibodies against H3 Influenza Viruses following Sequential Immunization with Different Hemagglutinins

Taia T. Wang, Gene S. Tan, Rong Hai, Natalie Pica, Erin Petersen, Thomas M. Moran, Peter Palese

The Disulfide Bonds in Glycoprotein E2 of Hepatitis C Virus Reveal the Tertiary Organization of the Molecule

Thomas Krey, Jacques d'Alayer, Carlos M. Kikuti, Aure Saulnier, Laurence Damier-Piolle, Isabelle Petitpas, Daniel X. Johansson, Rajiv G. Tawar, Bruno Baron, Bruno Robert, Patrick England, Mats A. A. Persson, Annette Martin, Félix A. Rey

IFN-α-Induced Upregulation of CCR5 Leads to Expanded HIV Tropism In Vivo

Cheryl A. Stoddart, Mary E. Keir, Joseph M. McCune

Long-Lived Antibody and B Cell Memory Responses to the Human Malaria Parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

Jiraprapa Wipasa, Chaisuree Suphavilai, Lucy C. Okell, Jackie Cook, Patrick H. Corran, Kanitta Thaikla, Witaya Liewsaree, Eleanor M. Riley, Julius Clemence R. Hafalla

Interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans Rim101 and Protein Kinase A Regulates Capsule

Teresa R. O'Meara, Diana Norton, Michael S. Price, Christie Hay, Meredith F. Clements, Connie B. Nichols, J. Andrew Alspaugh

Optineurin Negatively Regulates the Induction of IFNβ in Response to RNA Virus Infection

Jamel Mankouri, Rennos Fragkoudis, Kathryn H. Richards, Laura F. Wetherill, Mark Harris, Alain Kohl, Richard M. Elliott, Andrew Macdonald

Highly Differentiated, Resting Gn-Specific Memory CD8+ T Cells Persist Years after Infection by Andes Hantavirus

Tobias Manigold, Andrés Mori, Rebecca Graumann, Elena Llop, Valeska Simon, Marcela Ferrés, Francisca Valdivieso, Constanza Castillo, Brian Hjelle, Pablo Vial

A Broad Distribution of the Alternative Oxidase in Microsporidian Parasites

Bryony A. P. Williams, Catherine Elliot, Lena Burri, Yasutoshi Kido, Kiyoshi Kita, Anthony L. Moore, Patrick J. Keeling

Pathogen Entrapment by Transglutaminase—A Conserved Early Innate Immune Mechanism

Zhi Wang, Christine Wilhelmsson, Pavel Hyrsl, Torsten G. Loof, Pavel Dobes, Martina Klupp, Olga Loseva, Matthias Mörgelin, Jennifer Iklé, Richard M. Cripps, Heiko Herwald, Ulrich Theopold

Six RNA Viruses and Forty-One Hosts: Viral Small RNAs and Modulation of Small RNA Repertoires in Vertebrate and Invertebrate Systems

Poornima Parameswaran, Ella Sklan, Courtney Wilkins, Trever Burgon, Melanie A. Samuel, Rui Lu, K. Mark Ansel, Vigo Heissmeyer, Shirit Einav, William Jackson, Tammy Doukas, Suman Paranjape, Charlotta Polacek, Flavia Barreto dos Santos, Roxana Jalili, Farbod Babrzadeh, Baback Gharizadeh, Dirk Grimm, Mark Kay, Satoshi Koike, Peter Sarnow, Mostafa Ronaghi, Shou-Wei Ding, Eva Harris, Marie Chow, Michael S. Diamond, Karla Kirkegaard, Jeffrey S. Glenn, Andrew Z. Fire

On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos

Sabrina Krief, Ananias A. Escalante, M. Andreina Pacheco, Lawrence Mugisha, Claudine André, Michel Halbwax, Anne Fischer, Jean-Michel Krief, John M. Kasenene, Mike Crandfield, Omar E. Cornejo, Jean-Marc Chavatte, Clara Lin, Franck Letourneur, Anne Charlotte Grüner, Thomas F. McCutchan, Laurent Rénia, Georges Snounou

Universal Features of Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation Are Critical for Plasmodium Zygote Development

Gunnar R. Mair, Edwin Lasonder, Lindsey S. Garver, Blandine M. D. Franke-Fayard, Céline K. Carret, Joop C. A. G. Wiegant, Roeland W. Dirks, George Dimopoulos, Chris J. Janse, Andrew P. Waters

Direct Presentation Is Sufficient for an Efficient Anti-Viral CD8+ T Cell Response

Ren-Huan Xu, Sanda Remakus, Xueying Ma, Felicia Roscoe, Luis J. Sigal

The Syk Kinase SmTK4 of Schistosoma mansoni Is Involved in the Regulation of Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

Svenja Beckmann, Christin Buro, Colette Dissous, Jörg Hirzmann, Christoph G. Grevelding

Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) Induced COX-2: A Key Factor in Latency, Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Cell Survival and Invasion

Neelam Sharma-Walia, Arun George Paul, Virginie Bottero, Sathish Sadagopan, Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Nagaraj Kerur, Bala Chandran

Lethal Antibody Enhancement of Dengue Disease in Mice Is Prevented by Fc Modification

Scott J. Balsitis, Katherine L. Williams, Ruben Lachica, Diana Flores, Jennifer L. Kyle, Erin Mehlhop, Syd Johnson, Michael S. Diamond, P. Robert Beatty, Eva Harris

Distinct External Signals Trigger Sequential Release of Apical Organelles during Erythrocyte Invasion by Malaria Parasites

Shailja Singh, M. Mahmood Alam, Ipsita Pal-Bhowmick, Joseph A. Brzostowski, Chetan E. Chitnis

Fis Is Essential for Capsule Production in Pasteurella multocida and Regulates Expression of Other Important Virulence Factors

Jason A. Steen, Jennifer A. Steen, Paul Harrison, Torsten Seemann, Ian Wilkie, Marina Harper, Ben Adler, John D. Boyce

Structural and Biochemical Characterization of SrcA, a Multi-Cargo Type III Secretion Chaperone in Salmonella Required for Pathogenic Association with a Host

Colin A. Cooper, Kun Zhang, Sara N. Andres, Yuan Fang, Natalia A. Kaniuk, Mandy Hannemann, John H. Brumell, Leonard J. Foster, Murray S. Junop, Brian K. Coombes

An Extensive Circuitry for Cell Wall Regulation in Candida albicans

Jill R. Blankenship, Saranna Fanning, Jessica J. Hamaker, Aaron P. Mitchell

Reverse Genetics in Candida albicans Predicts ARF Cycling Is Essential for Drug Resistance and Virulence

Elias Epp, Ghyslaine Vanier, Doreen Harcus, Anna Y. Lee, Gregor Jansen, Michael Hallett, Don C. Sheppard, David Y. Thomas, Carol A. Munro, Alaka Mullick, Malcolm Whiteway

TgMORN1 Is a Key Organizer for the Basal Complex of Toxoplasma gondii

Aoife T. Heaslip, Florence Dzierszinski, Barry Stein, Ke Hu

Neutrophil-Derived CCL3 Is Essential for the Rapid Recruitment of Dendritic Cells to the Site of Leishmania major Inoculation in Resistant Mice

Mélanie Charmoy, Saskia Brunner-Agten, David Aebischer, Floriane Auderset, Pascal Launois, Geneviève Milon, Amanda E. I. Proudfoot, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier

Exacerbated Innate Host Response to SARS-CoV in Aged Non-Human Primates

Saskia L. Smits, Anna de Lang, Judith M. A. van den Brand, Lonneke M. Leijten, Wilfred F. van IJcken, Marinus J. C. Eijkemans, Geert van Amerongen, Thijs Kuiken, Arno C. Andeweg, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Bart L. Haagmans

IPS-1 Is Essential for the Control of West Nile Virus Infection and Immunity

Mehul S. Suthar, Daphne Y. Ma, Sunil Thomas, Jennifer M. Lund, Nu Zhang, Stephane Daffis, Alexander Y. Rudensky, Michael J. Bevan, Edward A. Clark, Murali-Krishna Kaja, Michael S. Diamond, Michael Gale Jr