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Table of Contents: April 2010

COVER

BrdU+ monocytes and macrophages in a simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (SIVE) lesion.

Image Credit: Xavier Alvarez (Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University).
Issue Image

This confocal micrograph shows cells triple-labeled with antibodies against BrdU (red), SIVp28 (green), and CD68 (blue). BrdU+ cells (red) that were not infected were identified in a lesion of an animal with SIVE. Numerous CD68+ and SIVp28+ cells are seen in this lesion; few of the mature CD68+ macrophages are BrdU+. The majority of BrdU+ cells are nonproductively infected (see Burdo et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000842).

Pearls

Review

Research Articles

Inadequate Clearance of Translocated Bacterial Products in HIV-Infected Humanized Mice

Ursula Hofer, Erika Schlaepfer, Stefan Baenziger, Marc Nischang, Stephan Regenass, Reto Schwendener, Werner Kempf, David Nadal, Roberto F. Speck

Multilayered Mechanism of CD4 Downregulation by HIV-1 Vpu Involving Distinct ER Retention and ERAD Targeting Steps

Javier G. Magadán, F. Javier Pérez-Victoria, Rachid Sougrat, Yihong Ye, Klaus Strebel, Juan S. Bonifacino

Impaired Innate Immunity in Tlr4−/− Mice but Preserved CD8+ T Cell Responses against Trypanosoma cruzi in Tlr4-, Tlr2-, Tlr9- or Myd88-Deficient Mice

Ana-Carolina Oliveira, Bruna C. de Alencar, Fanny Tzelepis, Weberton Klezewsky, Raquel N. da Silva, Fabieni S. Neves, Gisele S. Cavalcanti, Silvia Boscardin, Marise P. Nunes, Marcelo F. Santiago, Alberto Nóbrega, Maurício M. Rodrigues, Maria Bellio

Keratinocytes Determine Th1 Immunity during Early Experimental Leishmaniasis

Jan M. Ehrchen, Kirsten Roebrock, Dirk Foell, Nadine Nippe, Esther von Stebut, Johannes M. Weiss, Niels-Arne Münck, Dorothee Viemann, Georg Varga, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Hans-Joachim Schuberth, Johannes Roth, Cord Sunderkötter

Production of Extracellular Traps against Aspergillus fumigatus In Vitro and in Infected Lung Tissue Is Dependent on Invading Neutrophils and Influenced by Hydrophobin RodA

Sandra Bruns, Olaf Kniemeyer, Mike Hasenberg, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Sandor Nietzsche, Andreas Thywißen, Andreas Jeron, Jean-Paul Latgé, Axel A. Brakhage, Matthias Gunzer

Neisseria meningitidis Induces Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cell Detachment from the Matrix and Cleavage of Occludin: A Role for MMP-8

Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir, Christian Konrad, Heiko Slanina, Florian Czapek, Sabrina Hebling, Matthias Frosch

Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

Sonja Welsch, Larissa Kolesnikova, Verena Krähling, James D. Riches, Stephan Becker, John A. G. Briggs

Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin/Subunit p34: Targeting of an Anion Channel to the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

Grażyna Domańska, Christian Motz, Michael Meinecke, Anke Harsman, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Boris Reljic, Elke A. Dian-Lothrop, Antoine Galmiche, Oliver Kepp, Lars Becker, Kathrin Günnewig, Richard Wagner, Joachim Rassow

RNA Polymerase Activity and Specific RNA Structure Are Required for Efficient HCV Replication in Cultured Cells

Asako Murayama, Leiyun Weng, Tomoko Date, Daisuke Akazawa, Xiao Tian, Tetsuro Suzuki, Takanobu Kato, Yasuhito Tanaka, Masashi Mizokami, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuya Toyoda

Complement as an Endogenous Adjuvant for Dendritic Cell-Mediated Induction of Retrovirus-Specific CTLs

Zoltán Bánki, Wilfried Posch, Asim Ejaz, Verena Oberhauser, Suzanne Willey, Christoph Gassner, Heribert Stoiber, Ulf Dittmer, Manfred P. Dierich, Kim J. Hasenkrug, Doris Wilflingseder

Blood Fluke Exploitation of Non-Cognate CD4+ T Cell Help to Facilitate Parasite Development

Erika W. Lamb, Colleen D. Walls, John T. Pesce, Diana K. Riner, Sean K. Maynard, Emily T. Crow, Thomas A. Wynn, Brian C. Schaefer, Stephen J. Davies

Emergence and Pathogenicity of Highly Virulent Cryptococcus gattii Genotypes in the Northwest United States

Edmond J. Byrnes III, Wenjun Li, Yonathan Lewit, Hansong Ma, Kerstin Voelz, Ping Ren, Dee A. Carter, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Robert J. Bildfell, Robin C. May, Joseph Heitman

Proteolysis of Human Thrombin Generates Novel Host Defense Peptides

Praveen Papareddy, Victoria Rydengård, Mukesh Pasupuleti, Björn Walse, Matthias Mörgelin, Anna Chalupka, Martin Malmsten, Artur Schmidtchen

Two Coregulated Efflux Transporters Modulate Intracellular Heme and Protoporphyrin IX Availability in Streptococcus agalactiae

Annabelle Fernandez, Delphine Lechardeur, Aurélie Derré-Bobillot, Elisabeth Couvé, Philippe Gaudu, Alexandra Gruss

In Vitro Reconstitution of SARS-Coronavirus mRNA Cap Methylation

Mickaël Bouvet, Claire Debarnot, Isabelle Imbert, Barbara Selisko, Eric J. Snijder, Bruno Canard, Etienne Decroly

Novel Riboswitch Ligand Analogs as Selective Inhibitors of Guanine-Related Metabolic Pathways

Jérôme Mulhbacher, Eric Brouillette, Marianne Allard, Louis-Charles Fortier, François Malouin, Daniel A. Lafontaine

A Differential Role for Macropinocytosis in Mediating Entry of the Two Forms of Vaccinia Virus into Dendritic Cells

Kerrie J. Sandgren, John Wilkinson, Monica Miranda-Saksena, Gerald M. McInerney, Karen Byth-Wilson, Phillip J. Robinson, Anthony L. Cunningham

Increased Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Severe Falciparum Malaria: Association with Impaired Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Fatal Outcome

Tsin W. Yeo, Daniel A. Lampah, Emiliana Tjitra, Retno Gitawati, Christabelle J. Darcy, Catherine Jones, Enny Kenangalem, Yvette R. McNeil, Donald L. Granger, Bert K. Lopansri, J. Brice Weinberg, Ric N. Price, Stephen B. Duffull, David S. Celermajer, Nicholas M. Anstey

Prion Shedding from Olfactory Neurons into Nasal Secretions

Richard A. Bessen, Harold Shearin, Scott Martinka, Ryan Boharski, Diana Lowe, Jason M. Wilham, Byron Caughey, James A. Wiley

Identification of Host-Dependent Survival Factors for Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis through an siRNA Screen

Shilpi Jayaswal, Md. Azhar Kamal, Raina Dua, Shashank Gupta, Tanmay Majumdar, Gobardhan Das, Dhiraj Kumar, Kanury V. S. Rao

Suppression of mRNAs Encoding Tegument Tetraspanins from Schistosoma mansoni Results in Impaired Tegument Turnover

Mai H. Tran, Tori C. Freitas, Leanne Cooper, Soraya Gaze, Michelle L. Gatton, Malcolm K. Jones, Erica Lovas, Edward J. Pearce, Alex Loukas

Viral Capsid Is a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern in Adenovirus Keratitis

Ashish V. Chintakuntlawar, Xiaohong Zhou, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh

Increased Monocyte Turnover from Bone Marrow Correlates with Severity of SIV Encephalitis and CD163 Levels in Plasma

Tricia H. Burdo, Caroline Soulas, Krystyna Orzechowski, Jessica Button, Anitha Krishnan, Chie Sugimoto, Xavier Alvarez, Marcelo J. Kuroda, Kenneth C. Williams

The RING-CH Ligase K5 Antagonizes Restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 Particle Release by Mediating Ubiquitin-Dependent Endosomal Degradation of Tetherin

Claire Pardieu, Raphaël Vigan, Sam J. Wilson, Alessandra Calvi, Trinity Zang, Paul Bieniasz, Paul Kellam, Greg J. Towers, Stuart J. D. Neil

Junín Virus Infection of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors Impairs In Vitro Proplatelet Formation and Platelet Release via a Bystander Effect Involving Type I IFN Signaling

Roberto G. Pozner, Agustín E. Ure, Carolina Jaquenod de Giusti, Lina P. D'Atri, Joseph E. Italiano, Oscar Torres, Victor Romanowski, Mirta Schattner, Ricardo M. Gómez

The Physical Relationship between Infectivity and Prion Protein Aggregates Is Strain-Dependent

Philippe Tixador, Laëtitia Herzog, Fabienne Reine, Emilie Jaumain, Jérôme Chapuis, Annick Le Dur, Hubert Laude, Vincent Béringue

Deficiencies in Jasmonate-Mediated Plant Defense Reveal Quantitative Variation in Botrytis cinerea Pathogenesis

Heather C. Rowe, Justin W. Walley, Jason Corwin, Eva K.-F. Chan, Katayoon Dehesh, Daniel J. Kliebenstein

Escape of HIV-1-Infected Dendritic Cells from TRAIL-Mediated NK Cell Cytotoxicity during NK-DC Cross-Talk—A Pivotal Role of HMGB1

Marie-Thérèse Melki, Héla Saïdi, Alexandre Dufour, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Marie-Lise Gougeon

SARS-CoV Pathogenesis Is Regulated by a STAT1 Dependent but a Type I, II and III Interferon Receptor Independent Mechanism

Matthew B. Frieman, Jun Chen, Thomas E. Morrison, Alan Whitmore, William Funkhouser, Jerrold M. Ward, Elaine W. Lamirande, Anjeanette Roberts, Mark Heise, Kanta Subbarao, Ralph S. Baric

Peptide Inhibitors of Dengue-Virus Entry Target a Late-Stage Fusion Intermediate

Aaron G. Schmidt, Priscilla L. Yang, Stephen C. Harrison

Exposure to HIV-1 Directly Impairs Mucosal Epithelial Barrier Integrity Allowing Microbial Translocation

Aisha Nazli, Olivia Chan, Wendy N. Dobson-Belaire, Michel Ouellet, Michel J. Tremblay, Scott D. Gray-Owen, A. Larry Arsenault, Charu Kaushic

Three Members of the 6-cys Protein Family of Plasmodium Play a Role in Gamete Fertility

Melissa R. van Dijk, Ben C. L. van Schaijk, Shahid M. Khan, Maaike W. van Dooren, Jai Ramesar, Szymon Kaczanowski, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Hans Kroeze, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Wijnand M. Eling, Robert W. Sauerwein, Andrew P. Waters, Chris J. Janse

Spatial and Temporal Association of Outbreaks of H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Wild Birds with the 0°C Isotherm

Leslie A. Reperant, Neven S. Fučkar, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Andrew P. Dobson, Thijs Kuiken

A Timescale for Evolution, Population Expansion, and Spatial Spread of an Emerging Clone of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Ulrich Nübel, Janina Dordel, Kevin Kurt, Birgit Strommenger, Henrik Westh, Sanjay K. Shukla, Helena Žemličková, Raphaël Leblois, Thierry Wirth, Thibaut Jombart, François Balloux, Wolfgang Witte

Antagonism of Tetherin Restriction of HIV-1 Release by Vpu Involves Binding and Sequestration of the Restriction Factor in a Perinuclear Compartment

Mathieu Dubé, Bibhuti Bhusan Roy, Pierre Guiot-Guillain, Julie Binette, Johanne Mercier, Antoine Chiasson, Éric A. Cohen

The Development of Therapeutic Antibodies That Neutralize Homologous and Heterologous Genotypes of Dengue Virus Type 1

Bimmi Shrestha, James D. Brien, Soila Sukupolvi-Petty, S. Kyle Austin, Melissa A. Edeling, Taekyung Kim, Katie M. O'Brien, Christopher A. Nelson, Syd Johnson, Daved H. Fremont, Michael S. Diamond

Topology and Organization of the Salmonella typhimurium Type III Secretion Needle Complex Components

Oliver Schraidt, Matthew D. Lefebre, Matthias J. Brunner, Wolfgang H. Schmied, Andreas Schmidt, Julia Radics, Karl Mechtler, Jorge E. Galán, Thomas C. Marlovits

Highly Frequent Mutations in Negative Regulators of Multiple Virulence Genes in Group A Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Isolates

Tadayoshi Ikebe, Manabu Ato, Takayuki Matsumura, Hideki Hasegawa, Tetsutaro Sata, Kazuo Kobayashi, Haruo Watanabe

Molecular Mechanisms of Ethanol-Induced Pathogenesis Revealed by RNA-Sequencing

Laura Camarena, Vincent Bruno, Ghia Euskirchen, Sebastian Poggio, Michael Snyder

Structural and Functional Analysis of Viral siRNAs

Gyorgy Szittya, Simon Moxon, Vitantonio Pantaleo, Gabor Toth, Rachel L. Rusholme Pilcher, Vincent Moulton, Jozsef Burgyan, Tamas Dalmay

A Genomic Survey of Positive Selection in Burkholderia pseudomallei Provides Insights into the Evolution of Accidental Virulence

Tannistha Nandi, Catherine Ong, Arvind Pratap Singh, Justin Boddey, Timothy Atkins, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Angela E. Essex-Lopresti, Hui Hoon Chua, Talima Pearson, Jason F. Kreisberg, Christina Nilsson, Pramila Ariyaratne, Catherine Ronning, Liliana Losada, Yijun Ruan, Wing-Kin Sung, Donald Woods, Richard W. Titball, Ifor Beacham, Ian Peak, Paul Keim, William C. Nierman, Patrick Tan

SREB, a GATA Transcription Factor That Directs Disparate Fates in Blastomyces dermatitidis Including Morphogenesis and Siderophore Biosynthesis

Gregory M. Gauthier, Thomas D. Sullivan, Sergio S. Gallardo, T. Tristan Brandhorst, Amber J. Vanden Wymelenberg, Christina A. Cuomo, Garret Suen, Cameron R. Currie, Bruce S. Klein