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Table of Contents: May 2010

COVER

Listeria monocytogenes invasion of the villus tip.

Image Credit: Mickey Pentecost and Manuel R. Amieva, Stanford University School of Medicine
Issue Image

Three-dimensional confocal image reconstruction of a murine intestinal villus tip infected with L. monocytogenes expressing InlAm, InlB, and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Six hours after orogastric gavage, the terminal ileum was imaged with phalloidin in red to visualize actin, TO-PRO-3 in blue to see the nuclei, and GFP in green to see invading bacteria. Several replicating cytosolic bacteria surrounded by actin clouds or tails have invaded the villus tip epithelial cells. InlB accelerates invasion of the villus epithelium (see Pentecost et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000900).

Opinion

Pearls

Reviews

The Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Development and Severity of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

Michel J. van Vliet, Hermie J. M. Harmsen, Eveline S. J. M. de Bont, Wim J. E. Tissing

The Great Escape: Viral Strategies to Counter BST-2/Tetherin

Janet L. Douglas, Jean K. Gustin, Kasinath Viswanathan, Mandana Mansouri, Ashlee V. Moses, Klaus Früh

Research Articles

Perforin Expression Directly Ex Vivo by HIV-Specific CD8+ T-Cells Is a Correlate of HIV Elite Control

Adam R. Hersperger, Florencia Pereyra, Martha Nason, Korey Demers, Prameet Sheth, Lucy Y. Shin, Colin M. Kovacs, Benigno Rodriguez, Scott F. Sieg, Leia Teixeira-Johnson, Debbie Gudonis, Paul A. Goepfert, Michael M. Lederman, Ian Frank, George Makedonas, Rupert Kaul, Bruce D. Walker, Michael R. Betts

Global Migration Dynamics Underlie Evolution and Persistence of Human Influenza A (H3N2)

Trevor Bedford, Sarah Cobey, Peter Beerli, Mercedes Pascual

A Complex Small RNA Repertoire Is Generated by a Plant/Fungal-Like Machinery and Effected by a Metazoan-Like Argonaute in the Single-Cell Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

Laurence Braun, Dominique Cannella, Philippe Ortet, Mohamed Barakat, Céline F. Sautel, Sylvie Kieffer, Jérôme Garin, Olivier Bastien, Olivier Voinnet, Mohamed-Ali Hakimi

Effective, Broad Spectrum Control of Virulent Bacterial Infections Using Cationic DNA Liposome Complexes Combined with Bacterial Antigens

Robin Ireland, Norma Olivares-Zavaleta, Jonathan M. Warawa, Frank C. Gherardini, Clayton Jarrett, B. Joseph Hinnebusch, John T. Belisle, Jeffery Fairman, Catharine M. Bosio

The Early Stage of Bacterial Genome-Reductive Evolution in the Host

Han Song, Junghyun Hwang, Hyojeong Yi, Ricky L. Ulrich, Yan Yu, William C. Nierman, Heenam Stanley Kim

Analysis of Virion Structural Components Reveals Vestiges of the Ancestral Ichnovirus Genome

Anne-Nathalie Volkoff, Véronique Jouan, Serge Urbach, Sylvie Samain, Max Bergoin, Patrick Wincker, Edith Demettre, François Cousserans, Bertille Provost, Fasseli Coulibaly, Fabrice Legeai, Catherine Béliveau, Michel Cusson, Gabor Gyapay, Jean-Michel Drezen

NK Cells and γδ T Cells Mediate Resistance to Polyomavirus–Induced Tumors

Rabinarayan Mishra, Alex T. Chen, Raymond M. Welsh, Eva Szomolanyi-Tsuda

Massive APOBEC3 Editing of Hepatitis B Viral DNA in Cirrhosis

Jean-Pierre Vartanian, Michel Henry, Agnès Marchio, Rodolphe Suspène, Marie-Ming Aynaud, Denise Guétard, Minerva Cervantes-Gonzalez, Carlo Battiston, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Pascal Pineau, Anne Dejean, Simon Wain-Hobson

Effect of Neuraminidase Inhibitor–Resistant Mutations on Pathogenicity of Clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) Influenza Virus in Ferrets

Natalia A. Ilyushina, Jon P. Seiler, Jerold E. Rehg, Robert G. Webster, Elena A. Govorkova

Demonstration of Cross-Protective Vaccine Immunity against an Emerging Pathogenic Ebolavirus Species

Lisa E. Hensley, Sabue Mulangu, Clement Asiedu, Joshua Johnson, Anna N. Honko, Daphne Stanley, Giulia Fabozzi, Stuart T. Nichol, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Pierre E. Rollin, Victoria Wahl-Jensen, Michael Bailey, Peter B. Jahrling, Mario Roederer, Richard A. Koup, Nancy J. Sullivan

Environmental Factors Determining the Epidemiology and Population Genetic Structure of the Bacillus cereus Group in the Field

Ben Raymond, Kelly L. Wyres, Samuel K. Sheppard, Richard J. Ellis, Michael B. Bonsall

Susceptibility to Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Rat Death Is Controlled by a Single Chromosome 10 Locus That Includes rNlrp1

Zachary L. Newman, Morton P. Printz, Shihui Liu, Devorah Crown, Laura Breen, Sharmina Miller-Randolph, Pamela Flodman, Stephen H. Leppla, Mahtab Moayeri

Leishmania donovani Isolates with Antimony-Resistant but Not -Sensitive Phenotype Inhibit Sodium Antimony Gluconate-Induced Dendritic Cell Activation

Arun Kumar Haldar, Vinod Yadav, Eshu Singhal, Kamlesh Kumar Bisht, Alpana Singh, Suniti Bhaumik, Rajatava Basu, Pradip Sen, Syamal Roy

Combining ChIP-chip and Expression Profiling to Model the MoCRZ1 Mediated Circuit for Ca2+/Calcineurin Signaling in the Rice Blast Fungus

Soonok Kim, Jinnan Hu, Yeonyee Oh, Jongsun Park, Jinhee Choi, Yong-Hwan Lee, Ralph A. Dean, Thomas K. Mitchell

Persistent Growth of a Human Plasma-Derived Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Isolate in Cell Culture

Erica Silberstein, Kathleen Mihalik, Laura Ulitzky, Ewan P. Plant, Montserrat Puig, Sara Gagneten, Mei-ying W. Yu, Neerja Kaushik-Basu, Stephen M. Feinstone, Deborah R. Taylor

The Plasmodium falciparum-Specific Human Memory B Cell Compartment Expands Gradually with Repeated Malaria Infections

Greta E. Weiss, Boubacar Traore, Kassoum Kayentao, Aissata Ongoiba, Safiatou Doumbo, Didier Doumtabe, Younoussou Kone, Seydou Dia, Agnes Guindo, Abdramane Traore, Chiung-Yu Huang, Kazutoyo Miura, Marko Mircetic, Shanping Li, Amy Baughman, David L. Narum, Louis H. Miller, Ogobara K. Doumbo, Susan K. Pierce, Peter D. Crompton

Mouse Senile Amyloid Fibrils Deposited in Skeletal Muscle Exhibit Amyloidosis-Enhancing Activity

Jinze Qian, Jingmin Yan, Fengxia Ge, Beiru Zhang, Xiaoying Fu, Hiroshi Tomozawa, Jinko Sawashita, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi

EBV Promotes Human CD8+ NKT Cell Development

He Yuling, Xiao Ruijing, Ji Xiang, Li Li, Chen Lang, Xiong Jie, Xiao Wei, Wang Yujuan, Zhang Lijun, Zhou Rui, Tan Xinti, Bi Yongyi, Jiang Yan-Ping, Jin Youxin, Tan Jinquan

VEGF Promotes Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

Sabrina Epiphanio, Marta G. Campos, Ana Pamplona, Daniel Carapau, Ana C. Pena, Ricardo Ataíde, Carla A. A. Monteiro, Nuno Félix, Artur Costa-Silva, Claudio R. F. Marinho, Sérgio Dias, Maria M. Mota

Identification of a Mutant PfCRT-Mediated Chloroquine Tolerance Phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum

Stephanie G. Valderramos, Juan-Carlos Valderramos, Lise Musset, Lisa A. Purcell, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Eric Legrand, David A. Fidock

High Multiplicity Infection by HIV-1 in Men Who Have Sex with Men

Hui Li, Katharine J. Bar, Shuyi Wang, Julie M. Decker, Yalu Chen, Chuanxi Sun, Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez, Maria G. Salazar, Gerald H. Learn, Charity J. Morgan, Joseph E. Schumacher, Peter Hraber, Elena E. Giorgi, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Bette T. Korber, Alan S. Perelson, Joseph J. Eron, Myron S. Cohen, Charles B. Hicks, Barton F. Haynes, Martin Markowitz, Brandon F. Keele, Beatrice H. Hahn, George M. Shaw

The Pleiotropic CymR Regulator of Staphylococcus aureus Plays an Important Role in Virulence and Stress Response

Olga Soutourina, Sarah Dubrac, Olivier Poupel, Tarek Msadek, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete

The Type III Effectors NleE and NleB from Enteropathogenic E. coli and OspZ from Shigella Block Nuclear Translocation of NF-κB p65

Hayley J. Newton, Jaclyn S. Pearson, Luminita Badea, Michelle Kelly, Mark Lucas, Gavan Holloway, Kylie M. Wagstaff, Michelle A. Dunstone, Joan Sloan, James C. Whisstock, James B. Kaper, Roy M. Robins-Browne, David A. Jans, Gad Frankel, Alan D. Phillips, Barbara S. Coulson, Elizabeth L. Hartland

Muc2 Protects against Lethal Infectious Colitis by Disassociating Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria from the Colonic Mucosa

Kirk S. B. Bergstrom, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, Deanna L. Gibson, Caixia Ma, Marinieve Montero, Ho Pan Sham, Natasha Ryz, Tina Huang, Anna Velcich, B. Brett Finlay, Kris Chadee, Bruce A. Vallance

HIV-1 Transmitting Couples Have Similar Viral Load Set-Points in Rakai, Uganda

T. Déirdre Hollingsworth, Oliver Laeyendecker, George Shirreff, Christl A. Donnelly, David Serwadda, Maria J. Wawer, Noah Kiwanuka, Fred Nalugoda, Aleisha Collinson-Streng, Victor Ssempijja, William P. Hanage, Thomas C. Quinn, Ronald H. Gray, Christophe Fraser

Prolonged Antigen Presentation Is Required for Optimal CD8+ T Cell Responses against Malaria Liver Stage Parasites

Ian A. Cockburn, Yun-Chi Chen, Michael G. Overstreet, Jason R. Lees, Nico van Rooijen, Donna L. Farber, Fidel Zavala

Crystal Structure of HIV-1 gp41 Including Both Fusion Peptide and Membrane Proximal External Regions

Victor Buzon, Ganesh Natrajan, David Schibli, Felix Campelo, Michael M. Kozlov, Winfried Weissenhorn

Galectin-9/TIM-3 Interaction Regulates Virus-Specific Primary and Memory CD8+ T Cell Response

Sharvan Sehrawat, Pradeep B. J. Reddy, Naveen Rajasagi, Amol Suryawanshi, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Barry T. Rouse

Quorum Sensing Inhibition Selects for Virulence and Cooperation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Thilo Köhler, Gabriel G. Perron, Angus Buckling, Christian van Delden

Phylodynamic Reconstruction Reveals Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Expansions and their Molecular Determinants

J. Joukje Siebenga, Philippe Lemey, Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond, Andrew Rambaut, Harry Vennema, Marion Koopmans

Elevation of Intact and Proteolytic Fragments of Acute Phase Proteins Constitutes the Earliest Systemic Antiviral Response in HIV-1 Infection

Holger B. Kramer, Kerry J. Lavender, Li Qin, Andrea R. Stacey, Michael K. P. Liu, Katalin di Gleria, Alison Simmons, Nancy Gasper-Smith, Barton F. Haynes, Andrew J. McMichael, Persephone Borrow, Benedikt M. Kessler

Host-Detrimental Role of Esx-1-Mediated Inflammasome Activation in Mycobacterial Infection

Fredric Carlsson, Janice Kim, Calin Dumitru, Kai H. Barck, Richard A. D. Carano, Mei Sun, Lauri Diehl, Eric J. Brown

Infidelity of SARS-CoV Nsp14-Exonuclease Mutant Virus Replication Is Revealed by Complete Genome Sequencing

Lance D. Eckerle, Michelle M. Becker, Rebecca A. Halpin, Kelvin Li, Eli Venter, Xiaotao Lu, Sana Scherbakova, Rachel L. Graham, Ralph S. Baric, Timothy B. Stockwell, David J. Spiro, Mark R. Denison