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Table of Contents: September 2010

COVER

Induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest by the HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) requires the formation of mobile chromatin-associated foci.

Image Credit: Levon G. Abrahamyan, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM)
Issue Image

Confocal immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells expressing the HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein. The picture shows the accumulation of Vpr (red) into discrete foci dispersed in the nucleus (the nuclear membrane is delineated by an anti-nucleoporin staining shown in blue). These foci contain the E3 ubiquitin ligase component VprBP (Vpr-binding protein, DCAF1), associate with chromatin, and display rapid saltatory movement inside the nucleus. Interference with the formation or function of these subnuclear structures through genetic manipulations or other means inevitably impairs the induction of G2/M arrest by Vpr, demonstrating their critical contributions to the cytostatic properties of the viral protein (see Belzile et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001080).

Opinion

Pearls

Reviews

Sequestration and Tissue Accumulation of Human Malaria Parasites: Can We Learn Anything from Rodent Models of Malaria?

Blandine Franke-Fayard, Jannik Fonager, Anneke Braks, Shahid M. Khan, Chris J. Janse

The Coevolution of Virulence: Tolerance in Perspective

Tom J. Little, David M. Shuker, Nick Colegrave, Troy Day, Andrea L. Graham

Research Articles

Structure of the Extracellular Portion of CD46 Provides Insights into Its Interactions with Complement Proteins and Pathogens

B. David Persson, Nikolaus B. Schmitz, César Santiago, Georg Zocher, Mykol Larvie, Ulrike Scheu, José M. Casasnovas, Thilo Stehle

Phylogenetic Approach Reveals That Virus Genotype Largely Determines HIV Set-Point Viral Load

Samuel Alizon, Viktor von Wyl, Tanja Stadler, Roger D. Kouyos, Sabine Yerly, Bernard Hirschel, Jürg Böni, Cyril Shah, Thomas Klimkait, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Pietro L. Vernazza, Enos Bernasconi, Manuel Battegay, Philippe Bürgisser, Amalio Telenti, Huldrych F. Günthard, Sebastian Bonhoeffer , the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

HapX-Mediated Adaption to Iron Starvation Is Crucial for Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

Markus Schrettl, Nicola Beckmann, John Varga, Thorsten Heinekamp, Ilse D. Jacobsen, Christoph Jöchl, Tarek A. Moussa, Shaohua Wang, Fabio Gsaller, Michael Blatzer, Ernst R. Werner, William C. Niermann, Axel A. Brakhage, Hubertus Haas

Molecular and Evolutionary Bases of Within-Patient Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity in Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Infections

Maxime Levert, Oana Zamfir, Olivier Clermont, Odile Bouvet, Sylvain Lespinats, Marie Claire Hipeaux, Catherine Branger, Bertrand Picard, Claude Saint-Ruf, Françoise Norel, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Hervé Le Nagard, Stéphane Cruvellier, Béatrice Chane-Woon-Ming, Susanna Nilsson, Ivana Gudelj, Katherine Phan, Thomas Ferenci, Olivier Tenaillon, Erick Denamur

Azole Drugs Are Imported By Facilitated Diffusion in Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Fungi

Bryce E. Mansfield, Hanna N. Oltean, Brian G. Oliver, Samantha J. Hoot, Sarah E. Leyde, Lizbeth Hedstrom, Theodore C. White

Pathogenic Bacteria Target NEDD8-Conjugated Cullins to Hijack Host-Cell Signaling Pathways

Grégory Jubelin, Frédéric Taieb, David M. Duda, Yun Hsu, Ascel Samba-Louaka, Rika Nobe, Marie Penary, Claude Watrin, Jean-Philippe Nougayrède, Brenda A. Schulman, C. Erec Stebbins, Eric Oswald

Pathogen Specific, IRF3-Dependent Signaling and Innate Resistance to Human Kidney Infection

Hans Fischer, Nataliya Lutay, Bryndís Ragnarsdóttir, Manisha Yadav, Klas Jönsson, Alexander Urbano, Ahmed Al Hadad, Sebastian Rämisch, Petter Storm, Ulrich Dobrindt, Ellaine Salvador, Diana Karpman, Ulf Jodal, Catharina Svanborg

CpG-Methylation Regulates a Class of Epstein-Barr Virus Promoters

Martin Bergbauer, Markus Kalla, Anne Schmeinck, Christine Göbel, Ulrich Rothbauer, Sebastian Eck, Anna Benet-Pagès, Tim M. Strom, Wolfgang Hammerschmidt

Involvement of the Cytokine MIF in the Snail Host Immune Response to the Parasite Schistosoma mansoni

Alvaro Baeza Garcia, Raymond J. Pierce, Benjamin Gourbal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Dominique Colinet, Jean-Marc Reichhart, Colette Dissous, Christine Coustau

Impact of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Chimpanzee Population Dynamics

Rebecca S. Rudicell, James Holland Jones, Emily E. Wroblewski, Gerald H. Learn, Yingying Li, Joel D. Robertson, Elizabeth Greengrass, Falk Grossmann, Shadrack Kamenya, Lilian Pintea, Deus C. Mjungu, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Anna Mosser, Clarence Lehman, D. Anthony Collins, Brandon F. Keele, Jane Goodall, Beatrice H. Hahn, Anne E. Pusey, Michael L. Wilson

HLA Class I Binding of HBZ Determines Outcome in HTLV-1 Infection

Aidan MacNamara, Aileen Rowan, Silva Hilburn, Ulrich Kadolsky, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Koichiro Suemori, Masaki Yasukawa, Graham Taylor, Charles R. M. Bangham, Becca Asquith

A Major Determinant of Cyclophilin Dependence and Cyclosporine Susceptibility of Hepatitis C Virus Identified by a Genetic Approach

Feng Yang, Jason M. Robotham, Henry Grise, Stephen Frausto, Vanesa Madan, Margarita Zayas, Ralf Bartenschlager, Margaret Robinson, Andrew E. Greenstein, Anita Nag, Timothy M. Logan, Ewa Bienkiewicz, Hengli Tang

A Family of Plasmodesmal Proteins with Receptor-Like Properties for Plant Viral Movement Proteins

Khalid Amari, Emmanuel Boutant, Christina Hofmann, Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger, Lourdes Fernandez-Calvino, Pascal Didier, Alexander Lerich, Jérome Mutterer, Carole L. Thomas, Manfred Heinlein, Yves Mély, Andrew J. Maule, Christophe Ritzenthaler

Inhibition of TIR Domain Signaling by TcpC: MyD88-Dependent and Independent Effects on Escherichia coli Virulence

Manisha Yadav, Jingyao Zhang, Hans Fischer, Wen Huang, Nataliya Lutay, Christine Cirl, Josephine Lum, Thomas Miethke, Catharina Svanborg

Ebolavirus Is Internalized into Host Cells via Macropinocytosis in a Viral Glycoprotein-Dependent Manner

Asuka Nanbo, Masaki Imai, Shinji Watanabe, Takeshi Noda, Kei Takahashi, Gabriele Neumann, Peter Halfmann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

The N-Terminal Domain of the Arenavirus L Protein Is an RNA Endonuclease Essential in mRNA Transcription

Benjamin Morin, Bruno Coutard, Michaela Lelke, François Ferron, Romy Kerber, Saïd Jamal, Antoine Frangeul, Cécile Baronti, Rémi Charrel, Xavier de Lamballerie, Clemens Vonrhein, Julien Lescar, Gérard Bricogne, Stephan Günther, Bruno Canard

A Bistable Switch and Anatomical Site Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression in the Intestine

Alex T. Nielsen, Nadia A. Dolganov, Thomas Rasmussen, Glen Otto, Michael C. Miller, Stephen A. Felt, Stéphanie Torreilles, Gary K. Schoolnik

Role of Acetyl-Phosphate in Activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS Pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi

Haijun Xu, Melissa J. Caimano, Tao Lin, Ming He, Justin D. Radolf, Steven J. Norris, Frank Gheradini, Alan J. Wolfe, X. Frank Yang

The HA and NS Genes of Human H5N1 Influenza A Virus Contribute to High Virulence in Ferrets

Hirotaka Imai, Kyoko Shinya, Ryo Takano, Maki Kiso, Yukiko Muramoto, Saori Sakabe, Shin Murakami, Mutsumi Ito, Shinya Yamada, Mai thi Quynh Le, Chairul A. Nidom, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Kei Takahashi, Yasuyuki Omori, Takeshi Noda, Masayuki Shimojima, Satoshi Kakugawa, Hideo Goto, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Taisuke Horimoto, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Rescue of HIV-1 Release by Targeting Widely Divergent NEDD4-Type Ubiquitin Ligases and Isolated Catalytic HECT Domains to Gag

Eric R. Weiss, Elena Popova, Hikaru Yamanaka, Hyung Cheol Kim, Jon M. Huibregtse, Heinrich Göttlinger

Generation of Genic Diversity among Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains via Horizontal Gene Transfer during a Chronic Polyclonal Pediatric Infection

N. Luisa Hiller, Azad Ahmed, Evan Powell, Darren P. Martin, Rory Eutsey, Josh Earl, Benjamin Janto, Robert J. Boissy, Justin Hogg, Karen Barbadora, Rangarajan Sampath, Shaun Lonergan, J. Christopher Post, Fen Z. Hu, Garth D. Ehrlich

SRFR1 Negatively Regulates Plant NB-LRR Resistance Protein Accumulation to Prevent Autoimmunity

Yingzhong Li, Shuxin Li, Dongling Bi, Yu Ti Cheng, Xin Li, Yuelin Zhang

Polymorphisms in Anopheles gambiae Immune Genes Associated with Natural Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum

Caroline Harris, Louis Lambrechts, François Rousset, Luc Abate, Sandrine E. Nsango, Didier Fontenille, Isabelle Morlais, Anna Cohuet

Dynamics of the Multiplicity of Cellular Infection in a Plant Virus

Serafín Gutiérrez, Michel Yvon, Gaël Thébaud, Baptiste Monsion, Yannis Michalakis, Stéphane Blanc

The Transcriptome of the Human Pathogen Trypanosoma brucei at Single-Nucleotide Resolution

Nikolay G. Kolev, Joseph B. Franklin, Shai Carmi, Huafang Shi, Shulamit Michaeli, Christian Tschudi

Phylogenomics of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels Predicts Monepantel Effect

Lucien Rufener, Jennifer Keiser, Ronald Kaminsky, Pascal Mäser, Daniel Nilsson

Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

Helen Fones, Calum A. R. Davis, Arantza Rico, Fang Fang, J. Andrew C. Smith, Gail M. Preston

A Novel Family of Toxoplasma IMC Proteins Displays a Hierarchical Organization and Functions in Coordinating Parasite Division

Josh R. Beck, Imilce A. Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jessica Cruz de Leon, My-Hang Huynh, Vern B. Carruthers, Naomi S. Morrissette, Peter J. Bradley

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Activity Controls the Onset of the HCMV Lytic Cycle

Martin Zydek, Christian Hagemeier, Lüder Wiebusch

The Microbiota Mediates Pathogen Clearance from the Gut Lumen after Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Diarrhea

Kathrin Endt, Bärbel Stecher, Samuel Chaffron, Emma Slack, Nicolas Tchitchek, Arndt Benecke, Laurye Van Maele, Jean-Claude Sirard, Andreas J. Mueller, Mathias Heikenwalder, Andrew J. Macpherson, Richard Strugnell, Christian von Mering, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt

Steric Shielding of Surface Epitopes and Impaired Immune Recognition Induced by the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein

Joseph R. Francica, Angel Varela-Rohena, Andrew Medvec, Gabriela Plesa, James L. Riley, Paul Bates

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Promotes Uptake of Influenza A Viruses (IAV) into Host Cells

Thorsten Eierhoff, Eike R. Hrincius, Ursula Rescher, Stephan Ludwig, Christina Ehrhardt

High Content Phenotypic Cell-Based Visual Screen Identifies Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acyltrehalose-Containing Glycolipids Involved in Phagosome Remodeling

Priscille Brodin, Yannick Poquet, Florence Levillain, Isabelle Peguillet, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Martine Gilleron, Fanny Ewann, Thierry Christophe, Denis Fenistein, Jichan Jang, Mi-Seon Jang, Sei-Jin Park, Jean Rauzier, Jean-Philippe Carralot, Rachel Shrimpton, Auguste Genovesio, Jesus A. Gonzalo-Asensio, Germain Puzo, Carlos Martin, Roland Brosch, Graham R. Stewart, Brigitte Gicquel, Olivier Neyrolles

Formation of Mobile Chromatin-Associated Nuclear Foci Containing HIV-1 Vpr and VPRBP Is Critical for the Induction of G2 Cell Cycle Arrest

Jean-Philippe Belzile, Levon G. Abrahamyan, Francine C. A. Gérard, Nicole Rougeau, Éric A. Cohen

Generation of Covalently Closed Circular DNA of Hepatitis B Viruses via Intracellular Recycling Is Regulated in a Virus Specific Manner

Josef Köck, Christine Rösler, Jing-Jing Zhang, Hubert E. Blum, Michael Nassal, Christian Thoma

Surface Co-Expression of Two Different PfEMP1 Antigens on Single Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes Facilitates Binding to ICAM1 and PECAM1

Louise Joergensen, Dominique C. Bengtsson, Anja Bengtsson, Elena Ronander, Sanne S. Berger, Louise Turner, Michael B. Dalgaard, Gerald K. K. Cham, Michala E. Victor, Thomas Lavstsen, Thor G. Theander, David E. Arnot, Anja T. R. Jensen

Generation of Neutralizing Antibodies and Divergence of SIVmac239 in Cynomolgus Macaques Following Short-Term Early Antiretroviral Therapy

Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Emma J. Bowles, Joe Parker, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Enas Sheik-Khalil, Stephen Taylor, Oliver G. Pybus, Barbro Mäkitalo, Lilian Walther-Jallow, Mats Spångberg, Rigmor Thorstensson, Adnane Achour, Eva Maria Fenyö, Guillaume B. E. Stewart-Jones, Anna-Lena Spetz

A Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus Entry

Carl J. Baldick, Michael J. Wichroski, Annapurna Pendri, Ann W. Walsh, Jie Fang, Charles E. Mazzucco, Kevin A. Pokornowski, Ronald E. Rose, Betsy J. Eggers, Mayla Hsu, Weixu Zhai, Guangzhi Zhai, Samuel W. Gerritz, Michael A. Poss, Nicholas A. Meanwell, Mark I. Cockett, Daniel J. Tenney

Intracellular Proton Conductance of the Hepatitis C Virus p7 Protein and Its Contribution to Infectious Virus Production

Ann L. Wozniak, Stephen Griffin, David Rowlands, Mark Harris, MinKyung Yi, Stanley M. Lemon, Steven A. Weinman

Two Genes on A/J Chromosome 18 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus Infection by Combined Microarray and QTL Analyses

Sun-Hee Ahn, Hitesh Deshmukh, Nicole Johnson, Lindsay G. Cowell, Thomas H. Rude, William K. Scott, Charlotte L. Nelson, Aimee K. Zaas, Douglas A. Marchuk, Sehoon Keum, Supaporn Lamlertthon, Batu K. Sharma-Kuinkel, Gregory D. Sempowski, Vance G. Fowler Jr