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Table of Contents: November 2010

Issue Image

Confocal image of the accumulation of CD4+ T cells (shown in red) in the female murine genital tract mucosa, counterstained with To-Pro-3 (blue), captured after 24 days of a primary Chlamydia trachomatis infection. This sexually transmitted infection affects epithelial cells and ascends from the cervix to the upper genital tract. T helper subsets are found in distinct anatomical compartments of the genital tract with a dominance of protective Th1 effector cells in the upper genital tract. By contrast, the lower genital tract hosts predominantly Th2 cells, a consequence of regulatory IL-10-producing dendritic cells (see Marks et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001179).

Opinions

Should the Human Microbiome Be Considered When Developing Vaccines?

Rosana B. R. Ferreira, L. Caetano M. Antunes, B. Brett Finlay

Autoimmunity as a Predisposition for Infectious Diseases

Mohan S. Maddur, Janakiraman Vani, Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes, Srinivas Kaveri, Jagadeesh Bayry

Pearls

Review

Enhancing Oral Vaccine Potency by Targeting Intestinal M Cells

Ali Azizi, Ashok Kumar, Francisco Diaz-Mitoma, Jiri Mestecky

Research Articles

Cryo Electron Tomography of Native HIV-1 Budding Sites

Lars-Anders Carlson, Alex de Marco, Heike Oberwinkler, Anja Habermann, John A. G. Briggs, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, Kay Grünewald

A Molecular Mechanism for Eflornithine Resistance in African Trypanosomes

Isabel M. Vincent, Darren Creek, David G. Watson, Mohammed A. Kamleh, Debra J. Woods, Pui Ee Wong, Richard J. S. Burchmore, Michael P. Barrett

Tick Histamine Release Factor Is Critical for Ixodes scapularis Engorgement and Transmission of the Lyme Disease Agent

Jianfeng Dai, Sukanya Narasimhan, Lili Zhang, Lei Liu, Penghua Wang, Erol Fikrig

The Origin of Intraspecific Variation of Virulence in an Eukaryotic Immune Suppressive Parasite

Dominique Colinet, Antonin Schmitz, Dominique Cazes, Jean-Luc Gatti, Marylène Poirié

SV2 Mediates Entry of Tetanus Neurotoxin into Central Neurons

Felix L. Yeh, Min Dong, Jun Yao, William H. Tepp, Guangyun Lin, Eric A. Johnson, Edwin R. Chapman

HapX Positively and Negatively Regulates the Transcriptional Response to Iron Deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans

Won Hee Jung, Sanjay Saikia, Guanggan Hu, Joyce Wang, Carlen Ka-Yin Fung, Cletus D'Souza, Rick White, James W. Kronstad

The Subtilisin-Like Protease AprV2 Is Required for Virulence and Uses a Novel Disulphide-Tethered Exosite to Bind Substrates

Ruth M. Kennan, Wilson Wong, Om P. Dhungyel, Xiaoyan Han, David Wong, Dane Parker, Carlos J. Rosado, Ruby H. P. Law, Sheena McGowan, Shane B. Reeve, Vita Levina, Glenn A. Powers, Robert N. Pike, Stephen P. Bottomley, A. Ian Smith, Ian Marsh, Richard J. Whittington, James C. Whisstock, Corrine J. Porter, Julian I. Rood

Glycosylation Focuses Sequence Variation in the Influenza A Virus H1 Hemagglutinin Globular Domain

Suman R. Das, Pere Puigbò, Scott E. Hensley, Darrell E. Hurt, Jack R. Bennink, Jonathan W. Yewdell

Immune Evasion by Yersinia enterocolitica: Differential Targeting of Dendritic Cell Subpopulations In Vivo

Stella E. Autenrieth, Tanja-Rebecca Linzer, Clara Hiller, Birgit Keller, Philipp Warnke, Martin Köberle, Erwin Bohn, Tilo Biedermann, Hans-Jörg Bühring, Günter J. Hämmerling, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Ingo B. Autenrieth

Patients with Discordant Responses to Antiretroviral Therapy Have Impaired Killing of HIV-Infected T Cells

Sekar Natesampillai, Zilin Nie, Nathan W. Cummins, Dirk Jochmans, Gary D. Bren, Jonathan B. Angel, Andrew D. Badley

Structural Analysis of HIV-1 Maturation Using Cryo-Electron Tomography

Alex de Marco, Barbara Müller, Bärbel Glass, James D. Riches, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, John A. G. Briggs

CO2 Acts as a Signalling Molecule in Populations of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

Rebecca A. Hall, Luisa De Sordi, Donna M. MacCallum, Hüsnü Topal, Rebecca Eaton, James W. Bloor, Gary K. Robinson, Lonny R. Levin, Jochen Buck, Yue Wang, Neil A. R. Gow, Clemens Steegborn, Fritz A. Mühlschlegel

Potentiation of Epithelial Innate Host Responses by Intercellular Communication

Tamas Dolowschiak, Cécilia Chassin, Sanae Ben Mkaddem, Thilo M. Fuchs, Siegfried Weiss, Alain Vandewalle, Mathias W. Hornef

Crystal Structure and Size-Dependent Neutralization Properties of HK20, a Human Monoclonal Antibody Binding to the Highly Conserved Heptad Repeat 1 of gp41

Charles Sabin, Davide Corti, Victor Buzon, Mike S. Seaman, David Lutje Hulsik, Andreas Hinz, Fabrizia Vanzetta, Gloria Agatic, Chiara Silacci, Lara Mainetti, Gabriella Scarlatti, Federica Sallusto, Robin Weiss, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Winfried Weissenhorn

Modelling the Evolution and Spread of HIV Immune Escape Mutants

Helen R. Fryer, John Frater, Anna Duda, Mick G. Roberts, Rodney E. Phillips, Angela R. McLean , The SPARTAC Trial Investigators

TGF-b2 Induction Regulates Invasiveness of Theileria-Transformed Leukocytes and Disease Susceptibility

Marie Chaussepied, Natacha Janski, Martin Baumgartner, Regina Lizundia, Kirsty Jensen, William Weir, Brian R. Shiels, Jonathan B. Weitzman, Elizabeth J. Glass, Dirk Werling, Gordon Langsley

Genetic and Structural Basis for Selection of a Ubiquitous T Cell Receptor Deployed in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

John J. Miles, Anna M. Bulek, David K. Cole, Emma Gostick, Andrea J. A. Schauenburg, Garry Dolton, Vanessa Venturi, Miles P. Davenport, Mai Ping Tan, Scott R. Burrows, Linda Wooldridge, David A. Price, Pierre J. Rizkallah, Andrew K. Sewell

Interferon-Inducible CXC Chemokines Directly Contribute to Host Defense against Inhalational Anthrax in a Murine Model of Infection

Matthew A. Crawford, Marie D. Burdick, Ian J. Glomski, Anne E. Boyer, John R. Barr, Borna Mehrad, Robert M. Strieter, Molly A. Hughes

Autoacetylation of the Ralstonia solanacearum Effector PopP2 Targets a Lysine Residue Essential for RRS1-R-Mediated Immunity in Arabidopsis

Céline Tasset, Maud Bernoux, Alain Jauneau, Cécile Pouzet, Christian Brière, Sylvie Kieffer-Jacquinod, Susana Rivas, Yves Marco, Laurent Deslandes

Fcγ Receptor I Alpha Chain (CD64) Expression in Macrophages Is Critical for the Onset of Meningitis by Escherichia coli K1

Rahul Mittal, Sunil K. Sukumaran, Suresh K. Selvaraj, David G. Wooster, M. Madan Babu, Alan D. Schreiber, J. Sjef Verbeek, Nemani V. Prasadarao

Host Cell Invasion and Virulence Mediated by Candida albicans Ssa1

Jianing N. Sun, Norma V. Solis, Quynh T. Phan, Jashanjot S. Bajwa, Helena Kashleva, Angela Thompson, Yaoping Liu, Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Mira Edgerton, Scott G. Filler

Structural Basis of HIV-1 Neutralization by Affinity Matured Fabs Directed against the Internal Trimeric Coiled-Coil of gp41

Elena Gustchina, Mi Li, John M. Louis, D. Eric Anderson, John Lloyd, Christian Frisch, Carole A. Bewley, Alla Gustchina, Alexander Wlodawer, G. Marius Clore

The Gag Cleavage Product, p12, is a Functional Constituent of the Murine Leukemia Virus Pre-Integration Complex

Adi Prizan-Ravid, Efrat Elis, Nihay Laham-Karam, Sara Selig, Marcelo Ehrlich, Eran Bacharach

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Evades NKG2D-Dependent NK Cell Responses through NS5A-Mediated Imbalance of Inflammatory Cytokines

Damien Sène, Franck Levasseur, Michal Abel, Marion Lambert, Xavier Camous, Céline Hernandez, Véronique Pène, Arielle R. Rosenberg, Evelyne Jouvin-Marche, Patrice N. Marche, Patrice Cacoub, Sophie Caillat-Zucman

Leishmania major Survival in Selective Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Fly Vector Requires a Specific SCG-Encoded Lipophosphoglycan Galactosylation Pattern

Deborah E. Dobson, Shaden Kamhawi, Phillip Lawyer, Salvatore J. Turco, Stephen M. Beverley, David L. Sacks

Ubiquitin-Regulated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Trafficking of the Nipah Virus Matrix Protein Is Important for Viral Budding

Yao E. Wang, Arnold Park, Michael Lake, Mickey Pentecost, Betsabe Torres, Tatyana E. Yun, Mike C. Wolf, Michael R. Holbrook, Alexander N. Freiberg, Benhur Lee

Escherichia coli Global Gene Expression in Urine from Women with Urinary Tract Infection

Erin C. Hagan, Amanda L. Lloyd, David A. Rasko, Gary J. Faerber, Harry L. T. Mobley

HIV-1 Induces DCIR Expression in CD4+ T Cells

Alexandra A. Lambert, Michaël Imbeault, Caroline Gilbert, Michel J. Tremblay

Pneumolysin Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Promotes Proinflammatory Cytokines Independently of TLR4

Edel A. McNeela, Áine Burke, Daniel R. Neill, Cathy Baxter, Vitor E. Fernandes, Daniela Ferreira, Sarah Smeaton, Rana El-Rachkidy, Rachel M. McLoughlin, Andres Mori, Barry Moran, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Jurg Tschopp, Virginie Pétrilli, Peter W. Andrew, Aras Kadioglu, Ed C. Lavelle

MAP Kinase Phosphatase-2 Plays a Critical Role in Response to Infection by Leishmania mexicana

Mashael S. Al-Mutairi, Laurence C. Cadalbert, H. Adrienne McGachy, Muhannad Shweash, Juliane Schroeder, Magdalena Kurnik, Callum M. Sloss, Clare E. Bryant, James Alexander, Robin Plevin

Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Plays a Role in Lung Injury and Death Caused by Influenza A in Mice

Cristiana C. Garcia, Remo C. Russo, Rodrigo Guabiraba, Caio T. Fagundes, Rafael B. Polidoro, Luciana P. Tavares, Ana Paula C. Salgado, Geovanni D. Cassali, Lirlândia P. Sousa, Alexandre V. Machado, Mauro M. Teixeira

The Arabidopsis Resistance-Like Gene SNC1 Is Activated by Mutations in SRFR1 and Contributes to Resistance to the Bacterial Effector AvrRps4

Sang Hee Kim, Fei Gao, Saikat Bhattacharjee, Joseph A. Adiasor, Ji Chul Nam, Walter Gassmann

Translation Elongation Factor 1A Facilitates the Assembly of the Tombusvirus Replicase and Stimulates Minus-Strand Synthesis

Zhenghe Li, Judit Pogany, Steven Tupman, Anthony M. Esposito, Terri Goss Kinzy, Peter D. Nagy

Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture

Aartjan J. W. te Velthuis, Sjoerd H. E. van den Worm, Amy C. Sims, Ralph S. Baric, Eric J. Snijder, Martijn J. van Hemert

HTLV-1 Evades Type I Interferon Antiviral Signaling by Inducing the Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1)

Stéphanie Olière, Eduardo Hernandez, Agnès Lézin, Meztli Arguello, Renée Douville, Thi Lien-Anh Nguyen, Stéphane Olindo, Gérard Panelatti, Mirdad Kazanji, Peter Wilkinson, Rafick-Pierre Sékaly, Raymond Césaire, John Hiscott

Co-ordinated Role of TLR3, RIG-I and MDA5 in the Innate Response to Rhinovirus in Bronchial Epithelium

Louise Slater, Nathan W. Bartlett, Jennifer J. Haas, Jie Zhu, Simon D. Message, Ross P. Walton, Annemarie Sykes, Samer Dahdaleh, Deborah L. Clarke, Maria G. Belvisi, Onn M. Kon, Takashi Fujita, Peter K. Jeffery, Sebastian L. Johnston, Michael R. Edwards

Evolution of Linked Avirulence Effectors in Leptosphaeria maculans Is Affected by Genomic Environment and Exposure to Resistance Genes in Host Plants

Angela P. Van de Wouw, Anton J. Cozijnsen, James K. Hane, Patrick C. Brunner, Bruce A. McDonald, Richard P. Oliver, Barbara J. Howlett