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Table of Contents: December 2010

COVER

GCN5-mediated histone modifications in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

Image Credit: William J. Sullivan Jr., Indiana University School of Medicine
Issue Image

Toxoplasma tachyzoites proliferating within human fibroblast cells were stained for an immunofluorescence assay using an antibody that recognizes acetylated lysine 18 of histone H3, a primary substrate of histone acetyltransferase TgGCN5-A, and a nuclear co-stain (red). The antibody illuminates chromatin within parasite nuclei (smaller, yellow) and the larger host cell nucleus. Toxoplasma, which causes congenital birth defects and opportunistic infection, is incurable because it can develop into a tissue cyst. Parasites lacking TgGCN5-A are no longer capable of activating genes induced during cyst formation triggered by alkaline stress (see Naguleswaran et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001232).

Opinion

Pearls

Review

Research Articles

Large-Scale Field Application of RNAi Technology Reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Wayne Hunter, James Ellis, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Jerry Hayes, Dave Westervelt, Eitan Glick, Michael Williams, Ilan Sela, Eyal Maori, Jeffery Pettis, Diana Cox-Foster, Nitzan Paldi

Role for Sumoylation in Systemic Inflammation and Immune Homeostasis in Drosophila Larvae

Indira Paddibhatla, Mark J. Lee, Marta E. Kalamarz, Roberto Ferrarese, Shubha Govind

Early Myeloid Dendritic Cell Dysregulation is Predictive of Disease Progression in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Viskam Wijewardana, Adam C. Soloff, Xiangdong Liu, Kevin N. Brown, Simon M. Barratt-Boyes

Structural Basis for Apoptosis Inhibition by Epstein-Barr Virus BHRF1

Marc Kvansakul, Andrew H. Wei, Jamie I. Fletcher, Simon N. Willis, Lin Chen, Andrew W. Roberts, David C. S. Huang, Peter M. Colman

Hypoxia Induces an Immunodominant Target of Tuberculosis Specific T Cells Absent from Common BCG Vaccines

Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon, Katalin Andrea Wilkinson, Tige R. Rustad, Tolu Oni, Heinner Guio, Robert Andrew Kozak, David R. Sherman, Graeme Meintjes, Marcel A. Behr, Hans Martin Vordermeier, Douglas Brownlee Young, Robert John Wilkinson

Interaction of c-Cbl with Myosin IIA Regulates Bleb Associated Macropinocytosis of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

Mohanan Valiya Veettil, Sathish Sadagopan, Nagaraj Kerur, Sayan Chakraborty, Bala Chandran

Development of an In Vivo RNAi Protocol to Investigate Gene Function in the Filarial Nematode, Brugia malayi

Chuanzhe Song, Jack M. Gallup, Tim A. Day, Lyric C. Bartholomay, Michael J. Kimber

The p53-Target Gene Puma Drives Neutrophil-Mediated Protection against Lethal Bacterial Sepsis

Sean P. Garrison, Justin A. Thornton, Hans Häcker, Richard Webby, Jerold E. Rehg, Evan Parganas, Gerard P. Zambetti, Elaine I. Tuomanen

Compartmentation of Redox Metabolism in Malaria Parasites

Sebastian Kehr, Nicole Sturm, Stefan Rahlfs, Jude M. Przyborski, Katja Becker

Molecular Architectures of Trimeric SIV and HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins on Intact Viruses: Strain-Dependent Variation in Quaternary Structure

Tommi A. White, Alberto Bartesaghi, Mario J. Borgnia, Joel R. Meyerson, M. Jason V. de la Cruz, Julian W. Bess, Rachna Nandwani, James A. Hoxie, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Jacqueline L. S. Milne, Sriram Subramaniam

H2A.Z Demarcates Intergenic Regions of the Plasmodium falciparum Epigenome That Are Dynamically Marked by H3K9ac and H3K4me3

Richárd Bártfai, Wieteke A. M. Hoeijmakers, Adriana M. Salcedo-Amaya, Arne H. Smits, Eva Janssen-Megens, Anita Kaan, Moritz Treeck, Tim-Wolf Gilberger, Kees-Jan Françoijs, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg

Identifying the Age Cohort Responsible for Transmission in a Natural Outbreak of Bordetella bronchiseptica

Gráinne H. Long, Divya Sinha, Andrew F. Read, Stacy Pritt, Barry Kline, Eric T. Harvill, Peter J. Hudson, Ottar N. Bjørnstad

Dimeric 2G12 as a Potent Protection against HIV-1

Xin M. Luo, Margarida Y. Y. Lei, Rana A. Feidi, Anthony P. West Jr, Alejandro Benjamin Balazs, Pamela J. Bjorkman, Lili Yang, David Baltimore

The Killing of African Trypanosomes by Ethidium Bromide

Arnab Roy Chowdhury, Rahul Bakshi, Jianyang Wang, Gokben Yildirir, Beiyu Liu, Valeria Pappas-Brown, Gökhan Tolun, Jack D. Griffith, Theresa A. Shapiro, Robert E. Jensen, Paul T. Englund

Blockade of Immunosuppressive Cytokines Restores NK Cell Antiviral Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Dimitra Peppa, Lorenzo Micco, Alia Javaid, Patrick T. F. Kennedy, Anna Schurich, Claire Dunn, Celeste Pallant, Gidon Ellis, Pooja Khanna, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Richard J. Gilson, Mala K. Maini

HIV-1 Envelope Subregion Length Variation during Disease Progression

Marcel E. Curlin, Rafael Zioni, Stephen E. Hawes, Yi Liu, Wenjie Deng, Geoffrey S. Gottlieb, Tuofu Zhu, James I. Mullins

Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica

Elodie Vercken, Michael C. Fontaine, Pierre Gladieux, Michael E. Hood, Odile Jonot, Tatiana Giraud

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Eis Regulates Autophagy, Inflammation, and Cell Death through Redox-dependent Signaling

Dong-Min Shin, Bo-Young Jeon, Hye-Mi Lee, Hyo Sun Jin, Jae-Min Yuk, Chang-Hwa Song, Sang-Hee Lee, Zee-Won Lee, Sang-Nae Cho, Jin-Man Kim, Richard L. Friedman, Eun-Kyeong Jo

NleC, a Type III Secretion Protease, Compromises NF-κB Activation by Targeting p65/RelA

Hilo Yen, Tadasuke Ooka, Atsushi Iguchi, Tetsuya Hayashi, Nakaba Sugimoto, Toru Tobe

Toxoplasma gondii Lysine Acetyltransferase GCN5-A Functions in the Cellular Response to Alkaline Stress and Expression of Cyst Genes

Arunasalam Naguleswaran, Eliana V. Elias, Jeanette McClintick, Howard J. Edenberg, William J. Sullivan Jr

Structural and Functional Studies of Nonstructural Protein 2 of the Hepatitis C Virus Reveal Its Key Role as Organizer of Virion Assembly

Vlastimil Jirasko, Roland Montserret, Ji Young Lee, Jérôme Gouttenoire, Darius Moradpour, Francois Penin, Ralf Bartenschlager

HIV Capsid is a Tractable Target for Small Molecule Therapeutic Intervention

Wade S. Blair, Chris Pickford, Stephen L. Irving, David G. Brown, Marie Anderson, Richard Bazin, Joan Cao, Giuseppe Ciaramella, Jason Isaacson, Lynn Jackson, Rachael Hunt, Anne Kjerrstrom, James A. Nieman, Amy K. Patick, Manos Perros, Andrew D. Scott, Kevin Whitby, Hua Wu, Scott L. Butler

CD4+ Natural Regulatory T Cells Prevent Experimental Cerebral Malaria via CTLA-4 When Expanded In Vivo

Ashraful Haque, Shannon E. Best, Fiona H. Amante, Seri Mustafah, Laure Desbarrieres, Fabian de Labastida, Tim Sparwasser, Geoffrey R. Hill, Christian R. Engwerda

Inflammasome Sensor Nlrp1b-Dependent Resistance to Anthrax Is Mediated by Caspase-1, IL-1 Signaling and Neutrophil Recruitment

Mahtab Moayeri, Devorah Crown, Zachary L. Newman, Shu Okugawa, Michael Eckhaus, Christophe Cataisson, Shihui Liu, Inka Sastalla, Stephen H. Leppla

Legionella Metaeffector Exploits Host Proteasome to Temporally Regulate Cognate Effector

Tomoko Kubori, Naoaki Shinzawa, Hirotaka Kanuka, Hiroki Nagai

Rapid End-Point Quantitation of Prion Seeding Activity with Sensitivity Comparable to Bioassays

Jason M. Wilham, Christina D. Orrú, Richard A. Bessen, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Kazunori Sano, Brent Race, Kimberly D. Meade-White, Lara M. Taubner, Andrew Timmes, Byron Caughey