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Table of Contents: June 2011

COVER

A zygospore formed during sexual development of the pathogenic fungus Mucor circinelloides visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

Image Credit: Valerie Knowlton, North Carolina State University; and Joseph Heitman and Soo Chan Lee, Duke University
Issue Image

M. circinelloides is a human pathogenic zygomycete and has a bipolar mating system with (+) and (−) mating types. When co-cultured, strains of opposite mating type recognize each other and sexual reproduction occurs, resulting in the formation of zygospores. Zygospores are the dormant, stress-tolerant stage, and are thick-walled and enveloped by repeated asterisk-like structures, resulting in considerable structural rigidity. After a long period of dormancy from months to a year, zygospores of some species can germinate to produce progeny. Zygospores are morphologically distinct from asexual sporangiospores produced by sporangia (see Li et al., doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002086).

Opinion

“Rational Vaccine Design” for HIV Should Take into Account the Adaptive Potential of Polyreactive Antibodies

Jordan D. Dimitrov, Michel D. Kazatchkine, Srinivas V. Kaveri, Sebastien Lacroix-Desmazes

Pearls

Review

Structural and Mechanistic Studies of Measles Virus Illuminate Paramyxovirus Entry

Richard K. Plemper, Melinda A. Brindley, Ronald M. Iorio

Research Articles

A Role for TLR4 in Clostridium difficile Infection and the Recognition of Surface Layer Proteins

Anthony Ryan, Mark Lynch, Sinead M. Smith, Sylvie Amu, Hendrik J. Nel, Claire E. McCoy, Jennifer K. Dowling, Eve Draper, Vincent O'Reilly, Ciara McCarthy, Julie O'Brien, Déirdre Ní Eidhin, Mary J. O'Connell, Brian Keogh, Charles O. Morton, Thomas R. Rogers, Padraic G. Fallon, Luke A. O'Neill, Dermot Kelleher, Christine E. Loscher

T. brucei Infection Reduces B Lymphopoiesis in Bone Marrow and Truncates Compensatory Splenic Lymphopoiesis through Transitional B-Cell Apoptosis

Viki Bockstal, Patrick Guirnalda, Guy Caljon, Radhika Goenka, Janice C. Telfer, Deborah Frenkel, Magdalena Radwanska, Stefan Magez, Samuel J. Black

HIV-1 Efficient Entry in Inner Foreskin Is Mediated by Elevated CCL5/RANTES that Recruits T Cells and Fuels Conjugate Formation with Langerhans Cells

Zhicheng Zhou, Nicolas Barry de Longchamps, Alain Schmitt, Marc Zerbib, Marie-Cécile Vacher-Lavenu, Morgane Bomsel, Yonatan Ganor

HSV-2 Infection of Dendritic Cells Amplifies a Highly Susceptible HIV-1 Cell Target

Elena Martinelli, Hugo Tharinger, Ines Frank, James Arthos, Michael Piatak Jr., Jeffrey D. Lifson, James Blanchard, Agegnehu Gettie, Melissa Robbiani

A Dynamic Landscape for Antibody Binding Modulates Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of West Nile Virus

Kimberly A. Dowd, Christiane A. Jost, Anna P. Durbin, Stephen S. Whitehead, Theodore C. Pierson

The SV40 Late Protein VP4 Is a Viroporin that Forms Pores to Disrupt Membranes for Viral Release

Smita Raghava, Kristina M. Giorda, Fabian B. Romano, Alejandro P. Heuck, Daniel N. Hebert

The N-glycan Glycoprotein Deglycosylation Complex (Gpd) from Capnocytophaga canimorsus Deglycosylates Human IgG

Francesco Renzi, Pablo Manfredi, Manuela Mally, Suzette Moes, Paul Jenö, Guy R. Cornelis

Clathrin Facilitates the Morphogenesis of Retrovirus Particles

Fengwen Zhang, Trinity Zang, Sam J. Wilson, Marc C. Johnson, Paul D. Bieniasz

Cyclic di-GMP is Essential for the Survival of the Lyme Disease Spirochete in Ticks

Ming He, Zhiming Ouyang, Bryan Troxell, Haijun Xu, Akira Moh, Joseph Piesman, Michael V. Norgard, Mark Gomelsky, X. Frank Yang

Compensatory T Cell Responses in IRG-Deficient Mice Prevent Sustained Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

Jörn Coers, Dave C. Gondek, Andrew J. Olive, Amy Rohlfing, Gregory A. Taylor, Michael N. Starnbach

Candida albicans Infection of Caenorhabditis elegans Induces Antifungal Immune Defenses

Read Pukkila-Worley, Frederick M. Ausubel, Eleftherios Mylonakis

Glycosaminoglycan Binding Facilitates Entry of a Bacterial Pathogen into Central Nervous Systems

Yung-Chi Chang, Zhipeng Wang, Lindsay A. Flax, Ding Xu, Jeffrey D. Esko, Victor Nizet, Miriam J. Baron

The N-Terminus of the RNA Polymerase from Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Is the Determinant of Genome Attachment

Stephen C. Graham, L. Peter Sarin, Mohammad W. Bahar, Reg A. Myers, David I. Stuart, Dennis H. Bamford, Jonathan M. Grimes

HIV/SIV Infection Primes Monocytes and Dendritic Cells for Apoptosis

Mireille Laforge, Laure Campillo-Gimenez, Valérie Monceaux, Marie-Christine Cumont, Bruno Hurtrel, Jacques Corbeil, John Zaunders, Carole Elbim, Jérôme Estaquier

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Infects Alveolar Macrophages without Virus Production or Excessive TNF-Alpha Induction

Debby van Riel, Lonneke M. E. Leijten, Menno van der Eerden, Henk C. Hoogsteden, Leonie A. Boven, Bart N. Lambrecht, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Thijs Kuiken

Contribution of Intrinsic Reactivity of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins to CD4-Independent Infection and Global Inhibitor Sensitivity

Hillel Haim, Bettina Strack, Aemro Kassa, Navid Madani, Liping Wang, Joel R. Courter, Amy Princiotto, Kathleen McGee, Beatriz Pacheco, Michael S. Seaman, Amos B. Smith III, Joseph Sodroski

Low CCR7-Mediated Migration of Human Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells in Response to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

Cyril Le Nouën, Philippa Hillyer, Christine C. Winter, Thomas McCarty, Ronald L. Rabin, Peter L. Collins, Ursula J. Buchholz

Detection of Inferred CCR5- and CXCR4-Using HIV-1 Variants and Evolutionary Intermediates Using Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing

Evelien M. Bunnik, Luke C. Swenson, Diana Edo-Matas, Wei Huang, Winnie Dong, Arne Frantzell, Christos J. Petropoulos, Eoin Coakley, Hanneke Schuitemaker, P. Richard Harrigan, Angélique B. van 't Wout

Identification of DNA-Damage DNA-Binding Protein 1 as a Conditional Essential Factor for Cytomegalovirus Replication in Interferon-γ-Stimulated Cells

Mirko Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh Le, Manuela Fiedler, Albert Zimmermann, Elke Bleifuß, Hartmut Hengel

High Affinity Nanobodies against the Trypanosome brucei VSG Are Potent Trypanolytic Agents that Block Endocytosis

Benoît Stijlemans, Guy Caljon, Senthil Kumar A. Natesan, Dirk Saerens, Katja Conrath, David Pérez-Morga, Jeremy N. Skepper, Alexandros Nikolaou, Lea Brys, Etienne Pays, Stefan Magez, Mark C. Field, Patrick De Baetselier, Serge Muyldermans

Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Invasion Is Inhibited by Antibodies that Target the PfRh2a and b Binding Domains

Tony Triglia, Lin Chen, Sash Lopaticki, Chaitali Dekiwadia, David T. Riglar, Anthony N. Hodder, Stuart A. Ralph, Jake Baum, Alan F. Cowman

Functional Analysis of Host Factors that Mediate the Intracellular Lifestyle of Cryptococcus neoformans

Qing-Ming Qin, Jijing Luo, Xiaorong Lin, Jianwu Pei, Lei Li, Thomas A. Ficht, Paul de Figueiredo

Environmental Constraints Guide Migration of Malaria Parasites during Transmission

Janina Kristin Hellmann, Sylvia Münter, Mikhail Kudryashev, Simon Schulz, Kirsten Heiss, Ann-Kristin Müller, Kai Matuschewski, Joachim P. Spatz, Ulrich S. Schwarz, Friedrich Frischknecht

Induction of Noxa-Mediated Apoptosis by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Depends on Viral Recognition by Cytosolic Helicases, Leading to IRF-3/IFN-β-Dependent Induction of Pro-Apoptotic Noxa

Pedro Eitz Ferrer, Stephanie Potthoff, Susanne Kirschnek, Georg Gasteiger, Wolfgang Kastenmüller, Holger Ludwig, Stefan A. Paschen, Andreas Villunger, Gerd Sutter, Ingo Drexler, Georg Häcker

The Intrinsic Antiviral Defense to Incoming HSV-1 Genomes Includes Specific DNA Repair Proteins and Is Counteracted by the Viral Protein ICP0

Caroline E. Lilley, Mira S. Chaurushiya, Chris Boutell, Roger D. Everett, Matthew D. Weitzman

Sporangiospore Size Dimorphism Is Linked to Virulence of Mucor circinelloides

Charles H. Li, Maria Cervantes, Deborah J. Springer, Teun Boekhout, Rosa M. Ruiz-Vazquez, Santiago R. Torres-Martinez, Joseph Heitman, Soo Chan Lee

Bacteria-Induced Dscam Isoforms of the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus

Apiruck Watthanasurorot, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal, Haipeng Liu, Irene Söderhäll, Kenneth Söderhäll

Pathogen Recognition Receptor Signaling Accelerates Phosphorylation-Dependent Degradation of IFNAR1

Juan Qian, Hui Zheng, Wei-Chun HuangFu, Jianghuai Liu, Christopher J. Carbone, N. Adrian Leu, Darren P. Baker, Serge Y. Fuchs

The Influenza Virus Protein PB1-F2 Inhibits the Induction of Type I Interferon at the Level of the MAVS Adaptor Protein

Zsuzsanna T. Varga, Irene Ramos, Rong Hai, Mirco Schmolke, Adolfo García-Sastre, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Peter Palese

Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine

Martha I. Nelson, Philippe Lemey, Yi Tan, Amy Vincent, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Susan Detmer, Cécile Viboud, Marc A. Suchard, Andrew Rambaut, Edward C. Holmes, Marie Gramer

Molecular Interactions that Enable Movement of the Lyme Disease Agent from the Tick Gut into the Hemolymph

Lili Zhang, Yue Zhang, Sarojini Adusumilli, Lei Liu, Sukanya Narasimhan, Jianfeng Dai, Yang O. Zhao, Erol Fikrig

Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies to Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and Recent Seasonal H1N1 Influenza A Strains Influenced by a Mutation in Hemagglutinin Subunit 2

Wei Wang, Christine M. Anderson, Christopher J. De Feo, Min Zhuang, Hong Yang, Russell Vassell, Hang Xie, Zhiping Ye, Dorothy Scott, Carol D. Weiss

Coronavirus Gene 7 Counteracts Host Defenses and Modulates Virus Virulence

Jazmina L. G. Cruz, Isabel Sola, Martina Becares, Berta Alberca, Joan Plana, Luis Enjuanes, Sonia Zuñiga

Kupffer Cells Hasten Resolution of Liver Immunopathology in Mouse Models of Viral Hepatitis

Giovanni Sitia, Matteo Iannacone, Roberto Aiolfi, Masanori Isogawa, Nico van Rooijen, Cristina Scozzesi, Marco E. Bianchi, Ulrich H. von Andrian, Francis V. Chisari, Luca G. Guidotti

Endemic Dengue Associated with the Co-Circulation of Multiple Viral Lineages and Localized Density-Dependent Transmission

Jayna Raghwani, Andrew Rambaut, Edward C. Holmes, Vu Ty Hang, Tran Tinh Hien, Jeremy Farrar, Bridget Wills, Niall J. Lennon, Bruce W. Birren, Matthew R. Henn, Cameron P. Simmons