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Table of Contents: July 2011

COVER

Pepper plant co-infected by two Tobacco etch virus variants expressing fluorescent markers.

Image Credit: Mark Peter Zwart, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigacions Científicas-UPV
Issue Image

Pepper plants were inoculated with two Tobacco etch virus (TEV) variants expressing a green (GFP) or a red (mCherry) fluorescent marker. These markers allow for the visual tracking of the infection, from foci of primary infection in the inoculated leaf until systemic infection. This plant, photographed 7 days post inoculation, has developed a systemic infection with both virus variants. The mosaic patterns reflect both the potyvirus tendency to exclude infection of other genotypes, and the intense competition for space during viral expansion (see Zwart et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002122).

Opinions

Microbial Virulence as an Emergent Property: Consequences and Opportunities

Arturo Casadevall, Ferric C. Fang, Liise-anne Pirofski

Pearls

“Persisters”: Survival at the Cellular Level

Clinton C. Dawson, Chaidan Intapa, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

Review

Research Articles

A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi Genomic Chimera: A Model to Study Vi Polysaccharide Capsule Function In Vivo

Angela M. Jansen, Lindsay J. Hall, Simon Clare, David Goulding, Kathryn E. Holt, Andrew J. Grant, Piero Mastroeni, Gordon Dougan, Robert A. Kingsley

Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens

Steven J. Klosterman, Krishna V. Subbarao, Seogchan Kang, Paola Veronese, Scott E. Gold, Bart P. H. J. Thomma, Zehua Chen, Bernard Henrissat, Yong-Hwan Lee, Jongsun Park, Maria D. Garcia-Pedrajas, Dez J. Barbara, Amy Anchieta, Ronnie de Jonge, Parthasarathy Santhanam, Karunakaran Maruthachalam, Zahi Atallah, Stefan G. Amyotte, Zahi Paz, Patrik Inderbitzin, Ryan J. Hayes, David I. Heiman, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Reinhard Engels, James Galagan, Christina A. Cuomo, Katherine F. Dobinson, Li-Jun Ma

Novel Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate with an IRES-Based Attenuation and Host Range Alteration Mechanism

Kenneth Plante, Eryu Wang, Charalambos D. Partidos, James Weger, Rodion Gorchakov, Konstantin Tsetsarkin, Erin M. Borland, Ann M. Powers, Robert Seymour, Dan T. Stinchcomb, Jorge E. Osorio, Ilya Frolov, Scott C. Weaver

The Cost of Virulence: Retarded Growth of Salmonella Typhimurium Cells Expressing Type III Secretion System 1

Alexander Sturm, Matthias Heinemann, Markus Arnoldini, Arndt Benecke, Martin Ackermann, Matthias Benz, Jasmine Dormann, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt

Multiple Translocation of the AVR-Pita Effector Gene among Chromosomes of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and Related Species

Izumi Chuma, Chihiro Isobe, Yuma Hotta, Kana Ibaragi, Natsuru Futamata, Motoaki Kusaba, Kentaro Yoshida, Ryohei Terauchi, Yoshikatsu Fujita, Hitoshi Nakayashiki, Barbara Valent, Yukio Tosa

A Permeable Cuticle Is Associated with the Release of Reactive Oxygen Species and Induction of Innate Immunity

Floriane L'Haridon, Angélique Besson-Bard, Matteo Binda, Mario Serrano, Eliane Abou-Mansour, Francine Balet, Henk-Jan Schoonbeek, Stephane Hess, Ricardo Mir, José Léon, Olivier Lamotte, Jean-Pierre Métraux

Transformation of Natural Genetic Variation into Haemophilus Influenzae Genomes

Joshua Chang Mell, Svetlana Shumilina, Ira M. Hall, Rosemary J. Redfield

Effects of Interferon-α/β on HBV Replication Determined by Viral Load

Yongjun Tian, Wen-ling Chen, Jing-hsiung James Ou

Structural Basis of Chemokine Sequestration by CrmD, a Poxvirus-Encoded Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor

Xiaoguang Xue, Qingyu Lu, Hui Wei, Dongli Wang, Dongwei Chen, Guangjun He, Li Huang, Hanzhong Wang, Xinquan Wang

EBV Latency Types Adopt Alternative Chromatin Conformations

Italo Tempera, Michael Klichinsky, Paul M. Lieberman

13C Metabolic Flux Analysis Identifies an Unusual Route for Pyruvate Dissimilation in Mycobacteria which Requires Isocitrate Lyase and Carbon Dioxide Fixation

Dany J. V. Beste, Bhushan Bonde, Nathaniel Hawkins, Jane L. Ward, Michael H. Beale, Stephan Noack, Katharina Nöh, Nicholas J. Kruger, R. George Ratcliffe, Johnjoe McFadden

A Role for the Chemokine RANTES in Regulating CD8 T Cell Responses during Chronic Viral Infection

Alison Crawford, Jill Marie Angelosanto, Kim Lynn Nadwodny, Shawn D. Blackburn, E. John Wherry

An Interaction between KSHV ORF57 and UIF Provides mRNA-Adaptor Redundancy in Herpesvirus Intronless mRNA Export

Brian R. Jackson, James R. Boyne, Marko Noerenberg, Adam Taylor, Guillaume M. Hautbergue, Matthew J. Walsh, Rachel Wheat, David J. Blackbourn, Stuart A. Wilson, Adrian Whitehouse

In vivo Hypoxia and a Fungal Alcohol Dehydrogenase Influence the Pathogenesis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

Nora Grahl, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, Jeffrey M. Macdonald, Michael P. Gamcsik, Lisa Y. Ngo, Tobias M. Hohl, Robert A. Cramer

Global mRNA Degradation during Lytic Gammaherpesvirus Infection Contributes to Establishment of Viral Latency

Justin M. Richner, Karen Clyde, Andrea C. Pezda, Benson Yee Hin Cheng, Tina Wang, G. Renuka Kumar, Sergio Covarrubias, Laurent Coscoy, Britt Glaunsinger

Crystallography of a Lewis-Binding Norovirus, Elucidation of Strain-Specificity to the Polymorphic Human Histo-Blood Group Antigens

Yutao Chen, Ming Tan, Ming Xia, Ning Hao, Xuejun C. Zhang, Pengwei Huang, Xi Jiang, Xuemei Li, Zihe Rao

Selection of Resistant Bacteria at Very Low Antibiotic Concentrations

Erik Gullberg, Sha Cao, Otto G. Berg, Carolina Ilbäck, Linus Sandegren, Diarmaid Hughes, Dan I. Andersson

Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Unravels C. trachomatis Metabolism and Its Crosstalk with the Host Cell

Márta Szaszák, Philipp Steven, Kensuke Shima, Regina Orzekowsky-Schröder, Gereon Hüttmann, Inke R. König, Werner Solbach, Jan Rupp

The Role of IL-15 Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Virus-Induced Asthma Exacerbations

Vasile Laza-Stanca, Simon D. Message, Michael R. Edwards, Hayley L. Parker, Mihnea T. Zdrenghea, Tatiana Kebadze, Onn M. Kon, Patrick Mallia, Luminita A. Stanciu, Sebastian L. Johnston

Rotavirus Stimulates Release of Serotonin (5-HT) from Human Enterochromaffin Cells and Activates Brain Structures Involved in Nausea and Vomiting

Marie Hagbom, Claudia Istrate, David Engblom, Thommie Karlsson, Jesus Rodriguez-Diaz, Javier Buesa, John A. Taylor, Vesa-Matti Loitto, Karl-Eric Magnusson, Håkan Ahlman, Ove Lundgren, Lennart Svensson

SUMO Pathway Dependent Recruitment of Cellular Repressors to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Genomes

Delphine Cuchet-Lourenço, Chris Boutell, Vera Lukashchuk, Kyle Grant, Amanda Sykes, Jill Murray, Anne Orr, Roger D. Everett

Divergent Effects of Human Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus-1 on Cellular Metabolism

Livia Vastag, Emre Koyuncu, Sarah L. Grady, Thomas E. Shenk, Joshua D. Rabinowitz

E6 and E7 from Beta Hpv38 Cooperate with Ultraviolet Light in the Development of Actinic Keratosis-Like Lesions and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Mice

Daniele Viarisio, Karin Mueller-Decker, Ulrich Kloz, Birgit Aengeneyndt, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Tarik Gheit, Christa Flechtenmacher, Lutz Gissmann, Massimo Tommasino

The Impact of Recombination on dN/dS within Recently Emerged Bacterial Clones

Santiago Castillo-Ramírez, Simon R. Harris, Matthew T. G. Holden, Miao He, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D. Bentley, Edward J. Feil

Dynamic Evolution of Pathogenicity Revealed by Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of 19 Pseudomonas syringae Isolates

David A. Baltrus, Marc T. Nishimura, Artur Romanchuk, Jeff H. Chang, M. Shahid Mukhtar, Karen Cherkis, Jeff Roach, Sarah R. Grant, Corbin D. Jones, Jeffery L. Dangl

Dual Chaperone Role of the C-Terminal Propeptide in Folding and Oligomerization of the Pore-Forming Toxin Aerolysin

Ioan Iacovache, Matteo T. Degiacomi, Lucile Pernot, Sylvia Ho, Marc Schiltz, Matteo Dal Peraro, F. Gisou van der Goot

Widespread Endogenization of Genome Sequences of Non-Retroviral RNA Viruses into Plant Genomes

Sotaro Chiba, Hideki Kondo, Akio Tani, Daisuke Saisho, Wataru Sakamoto, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki

Cross-Species Transmission of a Novel Adenovirus Associated with a Fulminant Pneumonia Outbreak in a New World Monkey Colony

Eunice C. Chen, Shigeo Yagi, Kristi R. Kelly, Sally P. Mendoza, Nicole Maninger, Ann Rosenthal, Abigail Spinner, Karen L. Bales, David P. Schnurr, Nicholas W. Lerche, Charles Y. Chiu

Programmed Death (PD)-1-Deficient Mice Are Extremely Sensitive to Murine Hepatitis Virus Strain-3 (MHV-3) Infection

Yongwen Chen, Shengxi Wu, Guoning Guo, Lei Fei, Sheng Guo, Chengying Yang, Xiaolan Fu, Yuzhang Wu

Borrelia burgdorferi Requires Glycerol for Maximum Fitness During The Tick Phase of the Enzootic Cycle

Christopher J. Pappas, Radha Iyer, Mary M. Petzke, Melissa J. Caimano, Justin D. Radolf, Ira Schwartz

Hemoglobin Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

Melissa Pynnonen, Rachel E. Stephenson, Kelly Schwartz, Margarita Hernandez, Blaise R. Boles

CD39/Adenosine Pathway Is Involved in AIDS Progression

Maria Nikolova, Matthieu Carriere, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Sophie Limou, Mehwish Younas, Ayrin Kök, Sophie Huë, Nabila Seddiki, Anne Hulin, Olivier Delaneau, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Joshua T. Herbeck, James I. Mullins, Maria Muhtarova, Armand Bensussan, Jean-François Zagury, Jean-Daniel Lelievre, Yves Lévy

A Structural Model for Binding of the Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesin GspB to Host Carbohydrate Receptors

Tasia M. Pyburn, Barbara A. Bensing, Yan Q. Xiong, Bruce J. Melancon, Thomas M. Tomasiak, Nicholas J. Ward, Victoria Yankovskaya, Kevin M. Oliver, Gary Cecchini, Gary A. Sulikowski, Matthew J. Tyska, Paul M. Sullam, T. M. Iverson

Unique Cell Adhesion and Invasion Properties of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3, the Most Frequent Cause of Human Yersiniosis

Frank Uliczka, Fabio Pisano, Julia Schaake, Tatjana Stolz, Manfred Rohde, Angelika Fruth, Eckhard Strauch, Mikael Skurnik, Julia Batzilla, Alexander Rakin, Jürgen Heesemann, Petra Dersch

Illumination of Parainfluenza Virus Infection and Transmission in Living Animals Reveals a Tissue-Specific Dichotomy

Crystal W. Burke, John N. Mason, Sherri L. Surman, Bart G. Jones, Emilie Dalloneau, Julia L. Hurwitz, Charles J. Russell