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Table of Contents: November 2011

COVER

Human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 causes redistribution of NK-activating ligands to lysosomes.

Image Credit: Amy W. Hudson and Christine L. Schneider, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin
Issue Image

Herpesviruses have evolved a stunning array of mechanisms to escape immune detection, both by CTLs and NK cells. The HHV-7 U21 open reading frame encodes a protein that can bind to and reroute both class I MHC molecules and the NK-activating ligand ULBP1 to the lysosomal compartment. This deconvolved widefield epifluorescence micrograph shows co-localization of the NK-activating ligand ULBP1 with lamp2, a lysosomal membrane protein, in U21-expressing astrocytoma cells. Alexafluor-488- and -598-conjugated secondary antibodies were used to label antibodies directed against lamp2 (green) and HHV-7 U21 (magenta). Light green-white indicates co-localization (see Schneider and Hudson, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002362).

Opinion

Pearls

Review

The Role of the P2X7 Receptor in Infectious Diseases

Catherine M. Miller, Nicola R. Boulter, Stephen J. Fuller, Alana M. Zakrzewski, Michael P. Lees, Bernadette M. Saunders, James S. Wiley, Nicholas C. Smith

Research Articles

Inhibition of IL-10 Production by Maternal Antibodies against Group B Streptococcus GAPDH Confers Immunity to Offspring by Favoring Neutrophil Recruitment

Pedro Madureira, Elva Bonifácio Andrade, Bernardo Gama, Liliana Oliveira, Susana Moreira, Adília Ribeiro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Manuel Vilanova, Paula Ferreira

Shedding Light on the Elusive Role of Endothelial Cells in Cytomegalovirus Dissemination

Torsten Sacher, Joachim Andrassy, Aivars Kalnins, Lars Dölken, Stefan Jordan, Jürgen Podlech, Zsolt Ruzsics, Karl-Walter Jauch, Matthias J. Reddehase, Ulrich H. Koszinowski

Metagenomic Analysis of Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: Discovery of a New Bunyavirus

Bianli Xu, Licheng Liu, Xueyong Huang, Hong Ma, Yuan Zhang, Yanhua Du, Pengzhi Wang, Xiaoyan Tang, Haifeng Wang, Kai Kang, Shiqiang Zhang, Guohua Zhao, Weili Wu, Yinhui Yang, Haomin Chen, Feng Mu, Weijun Chen

Ultra-Efficient PrPSc Amplification Highlights Potentialities and Pitfalls of PMCA Technology

Gian Mario Cosseddu, Romolo Nonno, Gabriele Vaccari, Cecilia Bucalossi, Natalia Fernandez-Borges, Michele Angelo Di Bari, Joaquin Castilla, Umberto Agrimi

A Gammaherpesvirus Cooperates with Interferon-alpha/beta-Induced IRF2 to Halt Viral Replication, Control Reactivation, and Minimize Host Lethality

Pratyusha Mandal, Bridgette E. Krueger, Darby Oldenburg, Katherine A. Andry, R. Suzanne Beard, Douglas W. White, Erik S. Barton

A TNF-Regulated Recombinatorial Macrophage Immune Receptor Implicated in Granuloma Formation in Tuberculosis

Alexander W. Beham, Kerstin Puellmann, Rebecca Laird, Tina Fuchs, Roswita Streich, Caroline Breysach, Dirk Raddatz, Septimia Oniga, Teresa Peccerella, Peter Findeisen, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Alexei Gratchev, Stefan Schweyer, Bernadette Saunders, Johannes T. Wessels, Wiebke Möbius, Joseph Keane, Heinz Becker, Arnold Ganser, Michael Neumaier, Wolfgang E. Kaminski

Indirect DNA Readout by an H-NS Related Protein: Structure of the DNA Complex of the C-Terminal Domain of Ler

Tiago N. Cordeiro, Holger Schmidt, Cristina Madrid, Antonio Juárez, Pau Bernadó, Christian Griesinger, Jesús García, Miquel Pons

Protease-Resistant Prions Selectively Decrease Shadoo Protein

Joel C. Watts, Jan Stöhr, Sumita Bhardwaj, Holger Wille, Abby Oehler, Stephen J. DeArmond, Kurt Giles, Stanley B. Prusiner

SH3 Domain-Mediated Recruitment of Host Cell Amphiphysins by Alphavirus nsP3 Promotes Viral RNA Replication

Maarit Neuvonen, Arunas Kazlauskas, Miika Martikainen, Ari Hinkkanen, Tero Ahola, Kalle Saksela

UDP-glucose 4, 6-dehydratase Activity Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity and Virulence of Candida albicans

Manimala Sen, Bhavin Shah, Srabanti Rakshit, Vijender Singh, Bhavna Padmanabhan, Manikandan Ponnusamy, Koteppa Pari, Ram Vishwakarma, Dipankar Nandi, Parag P. Sadhale

Antibody Evasion by a Gammaherpesvirus O-Glycan Shield

Bénédicte Machiels, Céline Lété, Antoine Guillaume, Jan Mast, Philip G. Stevenson, Alain Vanderplasschen, Laurent Gillet

Down-Regulation of Shadoo in Prion Infections Traces a Pre-Clinical Event Inversely Related to PrPSc Accumulation

David Westaway, Sacha Genovesi, Nathalie Daude, Rebecca Brown, Agnes Lau, Inyoul Lee, Charles E. Mays, Janaky Coomaraswamy, Brenda Canine, Rose Pitstick, Allen Herbst, Jing Yang, Kerry W. S. Ko, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms, Stephen J. DeArmond, Debbie McKenzie, Leroy Hood, George A. Carlson

Neurons are MHC Class I-Dependent Targets for CD8 T Cells upon Neurotropic Viral Infection

Grégoire Chevalier, Elsa Suberbielle, Céline Monnet, Valérie Duplan, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Fanny Farrugia, Gwendal Le Masson, Roland Liblau, Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia

Transcriptome Analysis of Aedes aegypti Transgenic Mosquitoes with Altered Immunity

Zhen Zou, Jayme Souza-Neto, Zhiyong Xi, Vladimir Kokoza, Sang Woon Shin, George Dimopoulos, Alexander Raikhel

Evolution of a Species-Specific Determinant within Human CRM1 that Regulates the Post-transcriptional Phases of HIV-1 Replication

Nathan M. Sherer, Chad M. Swanson, Stéphane Hué, Roland G. Roberts, Julien R. C. Bergeron, Michael H. Malim

The Splicing Factor Proline-Glutamine Rich (SFPQ/PSF) Is Involved in Influenza Virus Transcription

Sara Landeras-Bueno, Núria Jorba, Maite Pérez-Cidoncha, Juan Ortín

West Nile Virus Experimental Evolution in vivo and the Trade-off Hypothesis

Eleanor R. Deardorff, Kelly A. Fitzpatrick, Greta V. S. Jerzak, Pei-Yong Shi, Laura D. Kramer, Gregory D. Ebel

Murid Herpesvirus-4 Exploits Dendritic Cells to Infect B Cells

Miguel Gaspar, Janet S. May, Soumi Sukla, Bruno Frederico, Michael B. Gill, Christopher M. Smith, Gabrielle T. Belz, Philip G. Stevenson

Phytophthora sojae Avirulence Effector Avr3b is a Secreted NADH and ADP-ribose Pyrophosphorylase that Modulates Plant Immunity

Suomeng Dong, Weixiao Yin, Guanghui Kong, Xinyu Yang, Dinah Qutob, Qinghe Chen, Shiv D. Kale, Yangyang Sui, Zhengguang Zhang, Daolong Dou, Xiaobo Zheng, Mark Gijzen, Brett M. Tyler, Yuanchao Wang

Novel Anti-bacterial Activities of β-defensin 1 in Human Platelets: Suppression of Pathogen Growth and Signaling of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

Bjoern F. Kraemer, Robert A. Campbell, Hansjörg Schwertz, Mark J. Cody, Zechariah Franks, Neal D. Tolley, Walter H. A. Kahr, Stephan Lindemann, Peter Seizer, Christian C. Yost, Guy A. Zimmerman, Andrew S. Weyrich

Evolution of Multidrug Resistance during Staphylococcus aureus Infection Involves Mutation of the Essential Two Component Regulator WalKR

Benjamin P. Howden, Christopher R. E. McEvoy, David L. Allen, Kyra Chua, Wei Gao, Paul F. Harrison, Jan Bell, Geoffrey Coombs, Vicki Bennett-Wood, Jessica L. Porter, Roy Robins-Browne, John K. Davies, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P. Stinear

CD4 T Cell Immunity Is Critical for the Control of Simian Varicella Virus Infection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of VZV Infection

Kristen Haberthur, Flora Engelmann, Byng Park, Alex Barron, Alfred Legasse, Jesse Dewane, Miranda Fischer, Amelia Kerns, Monica Brown, Ilhem Messaoudi

Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus

Thierry Fontaine, Aurélie Delangle, Catherine Simenel, Bernadette Coddeville, Sandra J. van Vliet, Yvette van Kooyk, Silvia Bozza, Silvia Moretti, Flavio Schwarz, Coline Trichot, Markus Aebi, Muriel Delepierre, Carole Elbim, Luigina Romani, Jean-Paul Latgé

CD11b+, Ly6G+ Cells Produce Type I Interferon and Exhibit Tissue Protective Properties Following Peripheral Virus Infection

Matthew A. Fischer, Michael L. Davies, Irene E. Reider, Erica L. Heipertz, Melanie R. Epler, Janet J. Sei, Molly A. Ingersoll, Nico Van Rooijen, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Christopher C. Norbury

EBV Tegument Protein BNRF1 Disrupts DAXX-ATRX to Activate Viral Early Gene Transcription

Kevin Tsai, Nadezhda Thikmyanova, Jason A. Wojcechowskyj, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Paul M. Lieberman

Early Secreted Antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Promotes Protective T Helper 17 Cell Responses in a Toll-Like Receptor-2-dependent Manner

Samit Chatterjee, Ved Prakash Dwivedi, Yogesh Singh, Imran Siddiqui, Pawan Sharma, Luc Van Kaer, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Gobardhan Das

Cross-Reactive T Cells Are Involved in Rapid Clearance of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus in Nonhuman Primates

Jason T. Weinfurter, Kevin Brunner, Saverio V. Capuano III, Chengjun Li, Karl W. Broman, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Thomas C. Friedrich

Towards a Structural Comprehension of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems: Characterization of the TssJ-TssM Complex of an Escherichia coli Pathovar

Catarina Felisberto-Rodrigues, Eric Durand, Marie-Stéphanie Aschtgen, Stéphanie Blangy, Miguel Ortiz-Lombardia, Badreddine Douzi, Christian Cambillau, Eric Cascales

SAG101 Forms a Ternary Complex with EDS1 and PAD4 and Is Required for Resistance Signaling against Turnip Crinkle Virus

Shifeng Zhu, Rae-Dong Jeong, Srivathsa C. Venugopal, Ludmila Lapchyk, DuRoy Navarre, Aardra Kachroo, Pradeep Kachroo

Assessing Predicted HIV-1 Replicative Capacity in a Clinical Setting

Roger D. Kouyos, Viktor von Wyl, Trevor Hinkley, Christos J. Petropoulos, Mojgan Haddad, Jeannette M. Whitcomb, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Cristina Cellerai, Thomas Klimkait, Huldrych F. Günthard, Sebastian Bonhoeffer , the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

BST2/Tetherin Enhances Entry of Human Cytomegalovirus

Kasinath Viswanathan, M. Shane Smith, Daniel Malouli, Mandana Mansouri, Jay A. Nelson, Klaus Früh

Genomic Transition to Pathogenicity in Chytrid Fungi

Suzanne Joneson, Jason E. Stajich, Shin-Han Shiu, Erica Bree Rosenblum

The Critical Role of Notch Ligand Delta-like 1 in the Pathogenesis of Influenza A Virus (H1N1) Infection

Toshihiro Ito, Ronald M. Allen, William F. Carson IV, Matthew Schaller, Karen A. Cavassani, Cory M. Hogaboam, Nicholas W. Lukacs, Akihiro Matsukawa, Steven L. Kunkel

Sequence-Based Analysis Uncovers an Abundance of Non-Coding RNA in the Total Transcriptome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Kristine B. Arnvig, Iñaki Comas, Nicholas R. Thomson, Joanna Houghton, Helena I. Boshoff, Nicholas J. Croucher, Graham Rose, Timothy T. Perkins, Julian Parkhill, Gordon Dougan, Douglas B. Young

Rab7A Is Required for Efficient Production of Infectious HIV-1

Marina Caillet, Katy Janvier, Annegret Pelchen–Matthews, Delphine Delcroix-Genête, Grégory Camus, Mark Marsh, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent

Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity

Georgina Fabro, Jens Steinbrenner, Mary Coates, Naveed Ishaque, Laura Baxter, David J. Studholme, Evelyn Körner, Rebecca L. Allen, Sophie J. M. Piquerez, Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso, David Greenshields, Rita Lei, Jorge L. Badel, Marie-Cecile Caillaud, Kee-Hoon Sohn, Guido Van den Ackerveken, Jane E. Parker, Jim Beynon, Jonathan D. G. Jones

Fatal Prion Disease in a Mouse Model of Genetic E200K Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Yael Friedman-Levi, Zeev Meiner, Tamar Canello, Kati Frid, Gabor G. Kovacs, Herbert Budka, Dana Avrahami, Ruth Gabizon

The Pore-Forming Toxin Listeriolysin O Mediates a Novel Entry Pathway of L. monocytogenes into Human Hepatocytes

Stephen Vadia, Eusondia Arnett, Anne-Cécile Haghighat, Elisabeth M. Wilson-Kubalek, Rodney K. Tweten, Stephanie Seveau

A Molecular Mechanism for Bacterial Susceptibility to Zinc

Christopher A. McDevitt, Abiodun D. Ogunniyi, Eugene Valkov, Michael C. Lawrence, Bostjan Kobe, Alastair G. McEwan, James C. Paton

ChemR23 Dampens Lung Inflammation and Enhances Anti-viral Immunity in a Mouse Model of Acute Viral Pneumonia

Benjamin Bondue, Olivier Vosters, Patricia de Nadai, Stéphanie Glineur, Olivier De Henau, Souphalone Luangsay, Frédéric Van Gool, David Communi, Paul De Vuyst, Daniel Desmecht, Marc Parmentier

Sap Transporter Mediated Import and Subsequent Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides in Haemophilus

Catherine L. Shelton, Forrest K. Raffel, Wandy L. Beatty, Sara M. Johnson, Kevin M. Mason

Single Molecule Analysis of Replicated DNA Reveals the Usage of Multiple KSHV Genome Regions for Latent Replication

Subhash C. Verma, Jie Lu, Qiliang Cai, Settapong Kosiyatrakul, Maria E. McDowell, Carl L. Schildkraut, Erle S. Robertson