Advertisement

Table of Contents: April 2012

COVER

Appressorium of the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

Image Credit: Richard O'Connell, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne
Issue Image

The spores of Colletotrichum higginsianum germinate on plant surfaces to produce highly specialized cells called appressoria with thick, darkly melanized cell walls. Long-recognized as organs of attachment and penetration, appressoria also function in the focal delivery of secreted effector proteins (see Kleemann et al., doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002643). Transmission electron microscopy reveals a needle-like penetration hypha emerging from a nanoscale pore (200 nm diameter) in the base of the appressorium to puncture the plant cuticle and cell wall.

Opinion

The Problem of Auto-Correlation in Parasitology

Laura C. Pollitt, Sarah E. Reece, Nicole Mideo, Daniel H. Nussey, Nick Colegrave

Pearls

Fungal Biofilms

Saranna Fanning, Aaron P. Mitchell

Reviews

Ross, Macdonald, and a Theory for the Dynamics and Control of Mosquito-Transmitted Pathogens

David L. Smith, Katherine E. Battle, Simon I. Hay, Christopher M. Barker, Thomas W. Scott, F. Ellis McKenzie

Research Articles

IL-17RA Signaling Reduces Inflammation and Mortality during Trypanosoma cruzi Infection by Recruiting Suppressive IL-10-Producing Neutrophils

Jimena Tosello Boari, María Carolina Amezcua Vesely, Daniela Andrea Bermejo, Maria Cecilia Ramello, Carolina Lucía Montes, Hugo Cejas, Adriana Gruppi, Eva Virginia Acosta Rodríguez

A Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor of Influenza A Viruses that Targets Polymerase Function and Indirectly Induces Interferon

Mila Brum Ortigoza, Oliver Dibben, Jad Maamary, Luis Martinez-Gil, Victor H. Leyva-Grado, Pablo Abreu Jr., Juan Ayllon, Peter Palese, Megan L. Shaw

Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

Scott W. Cousins, Diego G. Espinosa-Heidmann, Daniel M. Miller, Simone Pereira-Simon, Eleut P. Hernandez, Hsin Chien, Courtney Meier-Jewett, Richard D. Dix

Loss of Anti-Viral Immunity by Infection with a Virus Encoding a Cross-Reactive Pathogenic Epitope

Alex T. Chen, Markus Cornberg, Stephanie Gras, Carole Guillonneau, Jamie Rossjohn, Andrew Trees, Sebastien Emonet, Juan C. de la Torre, Raymond M. Welsh, Liisa K. Selin

CD8+ T-Cells Expressing Interferon Gamma or Perforin Play Antagonistic Roles in Heart Injury in Experimental Trypanosoma Cruzi-Elicited Cardiomyopathy

Jaline Coutinho Silverio, Isabela Resende Pereira, Márcio da Costa Cipitelli, Nathália Ferreira Vinagre, Maurício Martins Rodrigues, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Joseli Lannes-Vieira

Modelling the Evolutionary Dynamics of Viruses within Their Hosts: A Case Study Using High-Throughput Sequencing

Frédéric Fabre, Josselin Montarry, Jérôme Coville, Rachid Senoussi, Vincent Simon, Benoît Moury

CLEC5A Regulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Induced Neuroinflammation and Lethality

Szu-Ting Chen, Ren-Shyan Liu, Ming-Fang Wu, Yi-Ling Lin, Se-Yi Chen, David Tat-Wei Tan, Teh-Ying Chou, I-Shuen Tsai, Lei Li, Shie-Liang Hsieh

Entry of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 by Actin-Dependent, Clathrin- and Lipid Raft-Independent Endocytosis

Mario Schelhaas, Bhavin Shah, Michael Holzer, Peter Blattmann, Lena Kühling, Patricia M. Day, John T. Schiller, Ari Helenius

Proteolytic Processing of Nlrp1b Is Required for Inflammasome Activity

Bradley C. Frew, Vineet R. Joag, Jeremy Mogridge

T Regulatory Cells Control Susceptibility to Invasive Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Mice

Daniel R. Neill, Vitor E. Fernandes, Laura Wisby, Andrew R. Haynes, Daniela M. Ferreira, Ameera Laher, Natalie Strickland, Stephen B. Gordon, Paul Denny, Aras Kadioglu, Peter W. Andrew

Induction of Strain-Transcending Antibodies Against Group A PfEMP1 Surface Antigens from Virulent Malaria Parasites

Ashfaq Ghumra, Jean-Philippe Semblat, Ricardo Ataide, Carolyne Kifude, Yvonne Adams, Antoine Claessens, Damian N. Anong, Peter C. Bull, Clare Fennell, Monica Arman, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Michael Walther, David J. Conway, Lalla Kassambara, Ogobara K. Doumbo, Ahmed Raza, J. Alexandra Rowe

Structural Basis for Type VI Secretion Effector Recognition by a Cognate Immunity Protein

Mo Li, Isolde Le Trong, Mike A. Carl, Eric T. Larson, Seemay Chou, Justin A. De Leon, Simon L. Dove, Ronald E. Stenkamp, Joseph D. Mougous

Necrotrophism Is a Quorum-Sensing-Regulated Lifestyle in Bacillus thuringiensis

Thomas Dubois, Karoline Faegri, Stéphane Perchat, Christelle Lemy, Christophe Buisson, Christina Nielsen-LeRoux, Michel Gohar, Philippe Jacques, Nalini Ramarao, Anne-Brit Kolstø, Didier Lereclus

Treatment with IL-7 Prevents the Decline of Circulating CD4+ T Cells during the Acute Phase of SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques

Lia Vassena, Huiyi Miao, Raffaello Cimbro, Mauro S. Malnati, Giulia Cassina, Michael A. Proschan, Vanessa M. Hirsch, Bernard A. Lafont, Michel Morre, Anthony S. Fauci, Paolo Lusso

Interaction of the Trans-Frame Potyvirus Protein P3N-PIPO with Host Protein PCaP1 Facilitates Potyvirus Movement

Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Masayoshi Maeshima, Nahoko Nagasaki-Takekuchi, W. Allen Miller

TLR4 and NKT Cell Synergy in Immunotherapy against Visceral Leishmaniasis

Subir Karmakar, Siddhartha Kumar Bhaumik, Joydeep Paul, Tripti De

Intraspecies Variation in the Emergence of Hyperinfectious Bacterial Strains in Nature

Douglas M. Heithoff, William R. Shimp, John K. House, Yi Xie, Bart C. Weimer, Robert L. Sinsheimer, Michael J. Mahan

The Transcription Factor AmrZ Utilizes Multiple DNA Binding Modes to Recognize Activator and Repressor Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Genes

Edward E. Pryor Jr., Elizabeth A. Waligora, Binjie Xu, Sheri Dellos-Nolan, Daniel J. Wozniak, Thomas Hollis

In Vivo Suppression of HIV by Antigen Specific T Cells Derived from Engineered Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Scott G. Kitchen, Bernard R. Levin, Gregory Bristol, Valerie Rezek, Sohn Kim, Christian Aguilera-Sandoval, Arumugam Balamurugan, Otto O. Yang, Jerome A. Zack

Neutralization Serotyping of BK Polyomavirus Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Diana V. Pastrana, Daniel C. Brennan, Nicolas Çuburu, Gregory A. Storch, Raphael P. Viscidi, Parmjeet S. Randhawa, Christopher B. Buck

Human Monoclonal Antibodies to a Novel Cluster of Conformational Epitopes on HCV E2 with Resistance to Neutralization Escape in a Genotype 2a Isolate

Zhen-yong Keck, Jinming Xia, Yong Wang, Wenyan Wang, Thomas Krey, Jannick Prentoe, Thomas Carlsen, Angela Ying-Jian Li, Arvind H. Patel, Stanley M. Lemon, Jens Bukh, Felix A. Rey, Steven K. H. Foung

Calcium Influx Rescues Adenylate Cyclase-Hemolysin from Rapid Cell Membrane Removal and Enables Phagocyte Permeabilization by Toxin Pores

Radovan Fiser, Jiri Masin, Ladislav Bumba, Eva Pospisilova, Catherine Fayolle, Marek Basler, Lenka Sadilkova, Irena Adkins, Jana Kamanova, Jan Cerny, Ivo Konopasek, Radim Osicka, Claude Leclerc, Peter Sebo

Neutrophils Promote Mycobacterial Trehalose Dimycolate-Induced Lung Inflammation via the Mincle Pathway

Wook-Bin Lee, Ji-Seon Kang, Ji-Jing Yan, Myeong Sup Lee, Bo-Young Jeon, Sang-Nae Cho, Young-Joon Kim

An “Escape Clock” for Estimating the Turnover of SIV DNA in Resting CD4+ T Cells

Jeanette Reece, Janka Petravic, Mehala Balamurali, Liyen Loh, Shayarana Gooneratne, Rob De Rose, Stephen J. Kent, Miles P. Davenport

Productive Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Reveals a Critical Transition to Viral Permissiveness during Differentiation

Xianfang Wu, Jason M. Robotham, Emily Lee, Stephen Dalton, Norman M. Kneteman, David M. Gilbert, Hengli Tang

Human Nasal Challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Immunising in the Absence of Carriage

Adam K. A. Wright, Daniela M. Ferreira, Jenna F. Gritzfeld, Angela D. Wright, Kathryn Armitage, Kondwani C. Jambo, Emily Bate, Sherouk El Batrawy, Andrea Collins, Stephen B. Gordon

The Exopolysaccharide Matrix Modulates the Interaction between 3D Architecture and Virulence of a Mixed-Species Oral Biofilm

Jin Xiao, Marlise I. Klein, Megan L. Falsetta, Bingwen Lu, Claire M. Delahunty, John R. Yates III, Arne Heydorn, Hyun Koo

Group A Streptococcus Secreted Esterase Hydrolyzes Platelet-Activating Factor to Impede Neutrophil Recruitment and Facilitate Innate Immune Evasion

Mengyao Liu, Hui Zhu, Jinquan Li, Cristiana C. Garcia, Wenchao Feng, Liliya N. Kirpotina, Jonathan Hilmer, Luciana P. Tavares, Arthur W. Layton, Mark T. Quinn, Brian Bothner, Mauro M. Teixeira, Benfang Lei

β-Microseminoprotein Endows Post Coital Seminal Plasma with Potent Candidacidal Activity by a Calcium- and pH-Dependent Mechanism

Anneli M. L. Edström Hägerwall, Victoria Rydengård, Per Fernlund, Matthias Mörgelin, Maria Baumgarten, Alexander M. Cole, Martin Malmsten, Birthe B. Kragelund, Ole E. Sørensen

Methicillin Resistance Alters the Biofilm Phenotype and Attenuates Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Device-Associated Infections

Clarissa Pozzi, Elaine M. Waters, Justine K. Rudkin, Carolyn R. Schaeffer, Amanda J. Lohan, Pin Tong, Brendan J. Loftus, Gerald B. Pier, Paul D. Fey, Ruth C. Massey, James P. O'Gara

Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Dengue-Virus Entry

Aaron G. Schmidt, Kyungae Lee, Priscilla L. Yang, Stephen C. Harrison

Virion Assembly Factories in the Nucleus of Polyomavirus-Infected Cells

Kimberly D. Erickson, Cedric Bouchet-Marquis, Katie Heiser, Eva Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Rabinarayan Mishra, Benjamin Lamothe, Andreas Hoenger, Robert L. Garcea

Cell-Cell Transmission Enables HIV-1 to Evade Inhibition by Potent CD4bs Directed Antibodies

Irene A. Abela, Livia Berlinger, Merle Schanz, Lucy Reynell, Huldrych F. Günthard, Peter Rusert, Alexandra Trkola

Leishmania Induces Survival, Proliferation and Elevated Cellular dNTP Levels in Human Monocytes Promoting Acceleration of HIV Co-Infection

David J. Mock, Joseph A. Hollenbaugh, Waaqo Daddacha, Michael G. Overstreet, Chris A. Lazarski, Deborah J. Fowell, Baek Kim

Structural Basis of Cytotoxicity Mediated by the Type III Secretion Toxin ExoU from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Claire Gendrin, Carlos Contreras-Martel, Stéphanie Bouillot, Sylvie Elsen, David Lemaire, Dimitrios A. Skoufias, Philippe Huber, Ina Attree, Andréa Dessen

Airborne Signals from a Wounded Leaf Facilitate Viral Spreading and Induce Antibacterial Resistance in Neighboring Plants

Yuri L. Dorokhov, Tatiana V. Komarova, Igor V. Petrunia, Olga Y. Frolova, Denis V. Pozdyshev, Yuri Y. Gleba

2′-O Methylation of Internal Adenosine by Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase

Hongping Dong, David C. Chang, Maggie Ho Chia Hua, Siew Pheng Lim, Yok Hian Chionh, Fabian Hia, Yie Hou Lee, Petra Kukkaro, Shee-Mei Lok, Peter C. Dedon, Pei-Yong Shi

Sequential Delivery of Host-Induced Virulence Effectors by Appressoria and Intracellular Hyphae of the Phytopathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum

Jochen Kleemann, Linda J. Rincon-Rivera, Hiroyuki Takahara, Ulla Neumann, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, H. Charlotte van der Does, Stéphane Hacquard, Kurt Stüber, Isa Will, Wolfgang Schmalenbach, Elmon Schmelzer, Richard J. O'Connell

The Baculovirus Uses a Captured Host Phosphatase to Induce Enhanced Locomotory Activity in Host Caterpillars

Susumu Katsuma, Yasue Koyano, WonKyung Kang, Ryuhei Kokusho, Shizuo George Kamita, Toru Shimada