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Table of Contents: May 2012

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The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase machinery is localized in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs), which are regarded as sites of viral RNA synthesis. The RSV transcription factor M2-1 is targeted to these IBs by interacting with the phosphoprotein, the main RNA polymerase cofactor. This interaction is mediated by the “core” domain of M2-1 (See Blondot et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002734). The structure of this domain was solved by NMR, and residues involved in the P-M2-1 interaction were revealed. Mutagenesis of these residues on M2-1 (labeled in green) excluded it from IBs where P is still localized (labeled in red).

Opinion

A New Evolutionary Model for Hepatitis C Virus Chronic Infection

Rebecca R. Gray, Marco Salemi, Paul Klenerman, Oliver G. Pybus

Pearls

Hydrophobins—Unique Fungal Proteins

Jagadeesh Bayry, Vishukumar Aimanianda, J. Iñaki Guijarro, Margaret Sunde, Jean-Paul Latgé

Influence of Microbiota on Viral Infections

Jessica Wilks, Tatyana Golovkina

Type III Secretion in Yersinia: Injectisome or Not?

Tomas Edgren, Åke Forsberg, Roland Rosqvist, Hans Wolf-Watz

Five Questions on Prion Diseases

Adriano Aguzzi, Caihong Zhu

Review

Research Articles

Transmitted/Founder and Chronic Subtype C HIV-1 Use CD4 and CCR5 Receptors with Equal Efficiency and Are Not Inhibited by Blocking the Integrin α4β7

Nicholas F. Parrish, Craig B. Wilen, Lauren B. Banks, Shilpa S. Iyer, Jennifer M. Pfaff, Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez, Maria G. Salazar, Julie M. Decker, Erica H. Parrish, Anna Berg, Jennifer Hopper, Bhavna Hora, Amit Kumar, Tatenda Mahlokozera, Sally Yuan, Charl Coleman, Marion Vermeulen, Haitao Ding, Christina Ochsenbauer, John C. Tilton, Sallie R. Permar, John C. Kappes, Michael R. Betts, Michael P. Busch, Feng Gao, David Montefiori, Barton F. Haynes, George M. Shaw, Beatrice H. Hahn, Robert W. Doms

Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve Induces IL-10-Producing Tr1 Cells in the Colon

Seong Gyu Jeon, Hisako Kayama, Yoshiyasu Ueda, Takuya Takahashi, Takashi Asahara, Hirokazu Tsuji, Noriko M. Tsuji, Hiroshi Kiyono, Ji Su Ma, Takashi Kusu, Ryu Okumura, Hiromitsu Hara, Hiroki Yoshida, Masahiro Yamamoto, Koji Nomoto, Kiyoshi Takeda

Early Low-Titer Neutralizing Antibodies Impede HIV-1 Replication and Select for Virus Escape

Katharine J. Bar, Chun-yen Tsao, Shilpa S. Iyer, Julie M. Decker, Yongping Yang, Mattia Bonsignori, Xi Chen, Kwan-Ki Hwang, David C. Montefiori, Hua-Xin Liao, Peter Hraber, William Fischer, Hui Li, Shuyi Wang, Sarah Sterrett, Brandon F. Keele, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Alan S. Perelson, Bette T. Korber, Ivelin Georgiev, Jason S. McLellan, Jeffrey W. Pavlicek, Feng Gao, Barton F. Haynes, Beatrice H. Hahn, Peter D. Kwong, George M. Shaw

Evolution of an Eurasian Avian-like Influenza Virus in Naïve and Vaccinated Pigs

Pablo R. Murcia, Joseph Hughes, Patrizia Battista, Lucy Lloyd, Gregory J. Baillie, Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez, Doug Ormond, Karen Oliver, Debra Elton, Jennifer A. Mumford, Mario Caccamo, Paul Kellam, Bryan T. Grenfell, Edward C. Holmes, James L. N. Wood

Structure and Functional Analysis of the RNA- and Viral Phosphoprotein-Binding Domain of Respiratory Syncytial Virus M2-1 Protein

Marie-Lise Blondot, Virginie Dubosclard, Jenna Fix, Safa Lassoued, Magali Aumont-Nicaise, François Bontems, Jean-François Eléouët, Christina Sizun

Midgut Microbiota of the Malaria Mosquito Vector Anopheles gambiae and Interactions with Plasmodium falciparum Infection

Anne Boissière, Majoline T. Tchioffo, Dipankar Bachar, Luc Abate, Alexandra Marie, Sandrine E. Nsango, Hamid R. Shahbazkia, Parfait H. Awono-Ambene, Elena A. Levashina, Richard Christen, Isabelle Morlais

Comparative Genomics Reveals Two Novel RNAi Factors in Trypanosoma brucei and Provides Insight into the Core Machinery

Rebecca L. Barnes, Huafang Shi, Nikolay G. Kolev, Christian Tschudi, Elisabetta Ullu

In Vitro and In Vivo Isolation and Characterization of Duvenhage Virus

Penelope Koraka, Byron E. E. Martina, Jouke M. Roose, Pieter-Paul A. M. van Thiel, Geert van Amerongen, Thijs Kuiken, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus

Analysis of Functional Differences between Hepatitis C Virus NS5A of Genotypes 1–7 in Infectious Cell Culture Systems

Troels K. H. Scheel, Jannick Prentoe, Thomas H. R. Carlsen, Lotte S. Mikkelsen, Judith M. Gottwein, Jens Bukh

Chitohexaose Activates Macrophages by Alternate Pathway through TLR4 and Blocks Endotoxemia

Santosh K. Panda, Sunil Kumar, Nitin C. Tupperwar, Tushar Vaidya, Anna George, Satyajit Rath, Vineeta Bal, Balachandran Ravindran

Hsp90 Interacts Specifically with Viral RNA and Differentially Regulates Replication Initiation of Bamboo mosaic virus and Associated Satellite RNA

Ying Wen Huang, Chung Chi Hu, Ming Ru Liou, Ban Yang Chang, Ching Hsiu Tsai, Menghsiao Meng, Na Sheng Lin, Yau Heiu Hsu

Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

Xuefang Xu, Sean P. McAteer, Jai J. Tree, Darren J. Shaw, Eliza B. K. Wolfson, Scott A. Beatson, Andrew J. Roe, Lesley J. Allison, Margo E. Chase-Topping, Arvind Mahajan, Rosangela Tozzoli, Mark E. J. Woolhouse, Stefano Morabito, David L. Gally

Pdl1 Is a Putative Lipase that Enhances Photorhabdus Toxin Complex Secretion

Guowei Yang, Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez, Michael L. Beeton, Paul Wilkinson, Richard H. ffrench-Constant, Nicholas R. Waterfield

ATG5 Is Essential for ATG8-Dependent Autophagy and Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Leishmania major

Roderick A. M. Williams, Terry K. Smith, Benjamin Cull, Jeremy C. Mottram, Graham H. Coombs

Pathogen-Induced Proapoptotic Phenotype and High CD95 (Fas) Expression Accompany a Suboptimal CD8+ T-Cell Response: Reversal by Adenoviral Vaccine

José Ronnie Vasconcelos, Oscar Bruña–Romero, Adriano F. Araújo, Mariana R. Dominguez, Jonatan Ersching, Bruna C. G. de Alencar, Alexandre V. Machado, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Karina R. Bortoluci, Gustavo P. Amarante-Mendes, Marcela F. Lopes, Mauricio M. Rodrigues

The EBV Immunoevasins vIL-10 and BNLF2a Protect Newly Infected B Cells from Immune Recognition and Elimination

Simon Jochum, Andreas Moosmann, Stephan Lang, Wolfgang Hammerschmidt, Reinhard Zeidler

Immunogenetic Mechanisms Driving Norovirus GII.4 Antigenic Variation

Lisa C. Lindesmith, Martina Beltramello, Eric F. Donaldson, Davide Corti, Jesica Swanstrom, Kari Debbink, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Ralph S. Baric

Plasticity of the β-Trefoil Protein Fold in the Recognition and Control of Invertebrate Predators and Parasites by a Fungal Defence System

Mario Schubert, Silvia Bleuler-Martinez, Alex Butschi, Martin A. Wälti, Pascal Egloff, Katrin Stutz, Shi Yan, Iain B. H. Wilson, Michael O. Hengartner, Markus Aebi, Frédéric H.-T. Allain, Markus Künzler

Functional Analysis of NopM, a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase (NEL) Domain Effector of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234

Da-Wei Xin, Sha Liao, Zhi-Ping Xie, Dagmar R. Hann, Lea Steinle, Thomas Boller, Christian Staehelin

Induction of GADD34 Is Necessary for dsRNA-Dependent Interferon-β Production and Participates in the Control of Chikungunya Virus Infection

Giovanna Clavarino, Nuno Cláudio, Thérèse Couderc, Alexandre Dalet, Delphine Judith, Voahirana Camosseto, Enrico K. Schmidt, Till Wenger, Marc Lecuit, Evelina Gatti, Philippe Pierre

CD200 Receptor Controls Sex-Specific TLR7 Responses to Viral Infection

Guruswamy Karnam, Tomasz P. Rygiel, Matthijs Raaben, Guy C. M. Grinwis, Frank E. Coenjaerts, Maaike E. Ressing, Peter J. M. Rottier, Cornelis A. M. de Haan, Linde Meyaard

Interferon-Induced Ifit2/ISG54 Protects Mice from Lethal VSV Neuropathogenesis

Volker Fensterl, Jaime L. Wetzel, Srividya Ramachandran, Tomoaki Ogino, Stephen A. Stohlman, Cornelia C. Bergmann, Michael S. Diamond, Herbert W. Virgin, Ganes C. Sen

Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Protects Histoplasma Yeast Cells from Host-Derived Oxidative Stress

Brian H. Youseff, Eric D. Holbrook, Katherine A. Smolnycki, Chad A. Rappleye

Gammaherpesvirus Latency Accentuates EAE Pathogenesis: Relevance to Epstein-Barr Virus and Multiple Sclerosis

Costanza Casiraghi, Iryna Shanina, Sehyun Cho, Michael L. Freeman, Marcia A. Blackman, Marc S. Horwitz

Identification and Functional Analysis of the S-Layer Protein SplA of Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood of Honey Bees

Lena Poppinga, Bettina Janesch, Anne Fünfhaus, Gerhard Sekot, Eva Garcia-Gonzalez, Gillian Hertlein, Kati Hedtke, Christina Schäffer, Elke Genersch

Global Analysis of the Evolution and Mechanism of Echinocandin Resistance in Candida glabrata

Sheena D. Singh-Babak, Tomas Babak, Stephanie Diezmann, Jessica A. Hill, Jinglin Lucy Xie, Ying-Lien Chen, Susan M. Poutanen, Robert P. Rennie, Joseph Heitman, Leah E. Cowen

Rates of Viral Evolution Are Linked to Host Geography in Bat Rabies

Daniel G. Streicker, Philippe Lemey, Andres Velasco-Villa, Charles E. Rupprecht

The Lipopolysaccharide Core of Brucella abortus Acts as a Shield Against Innate Immunity Recognition

Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Maite Iriarte, Mateja Manček-Keber, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Leyre Palacios-Chaves, Carlos Chacón-Díaz, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, Anna Martirosyan, Kristine von Bargen, María-Jesús Grilló, Roman Jerala, Klaus Brandenburg, Enrique Llobet, José A. Bengoechea, Edgardo Moreno, Ignacio Moriyón, Jean-Pierre Gorvel

Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) into the Distal Axons of Trigeminal Neurons Favors the Onset of Nonproductive, Silent Infection

Wali Hafezi, Eva U. Lorentzen, Bodo R. Eing, Marcus Müller, Nicholas J. C. King, Barbara Klupp, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Joachim E. Kühn

The NDR/LATS Kinase Cbk1 Controls the Activity of the Transcriptional Regulator Bcr1 during Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans

Pilar Gutiérrez-Escribano, Ute Zeidler, M. Belén Suárez, Sophie Bachellier-Bassi, Andrés Clemente-Blanco, Julie Bonhomme, Carlos R. Vázquez de Aldana, Christophe d'Enfert, Jaime Correa-Bordes

The Ustilago maydis Effector Pep1 Suppresses Plant Immunity by Inhibition of Host Peroxidase Activity

Christoph Hemetsberger, Christian Herrberger, Bernd Zechmann, Morten Hillmer, Gunther Doehlemann

The Effect of Human Factor H on Immunogenicity of Meningococcal Native Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines with Over-Expressed Factor H Binding Protein

Peter T. Beernink, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Rolando Pajon, Emily M. Braga, Sanjay Ram, Dan M. Granoff

Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded LMP1 Interacts with FGD4 to Activate Cdc42 and Thereby Promote Migration of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

Hao-Ping Liu, Chia-Chun Chen, Chih-Ching Wu, Yi-Chuan Huang, Shu-Chen Liu, Ying Liang, Kai-Ping Chang, Yu-Sun Chang

Nitazoxanide Stimulates Autophagy and Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling and Intracellular Proliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Karen K. Y. Lam, Xingji Zheng, Roberto Forestieri, Aruna D. Balgi, Matt Nodwell, Sarah Vollett, Hilary J. Anderson, Raymond J. Andersen, Yossef Av-Gay, Michel Roberge

Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man

Yoshan Moodley, Bodo Linz, Robert P. Bond, Martin Nieuwoudt, Himla Soodyall, Carina M. Schlebusch, Steffi Bernhöft, James Hale, Sebastian Suerbaum, Lawrence Mugisha, Schalk W. van der Merwe, Mark Achtman

Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Naïve B Cells In Vitro Frequently Selects Clones with Mutated Immunoglobulin Genotypes: Implications for Virus Biology

Emily Heath, Noelia Begue-Pastor, Sridhar Chaganti, Debbie Croom-Carter, Claire Shannon-Lowe, Dieter Kube, Regina Feederle, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Alan B. Rickinson, Andrew I. Bell

2′-O Methylation of the Viral mRNA Cap by West Nile Virus Evades Ifit1-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms of Host Restriction In Vivo

Kristy J. Szretter, Brian P. Daniels, Hyelim Cho, Maria D. Gainey, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Michael Gale Jr., Herbert W. Virgin, Robyn S. Klein, Ganes C. Sen, Michael S. Diamond

Negative Selection by an Endogenous Retrovirus Promotes a Higher-Avidity CD4+ T Cell Response to Retroviral Infection

George R. Young, Mickaël J.-Y. Ploquin, Urszula Eksmond, Munisch Wadwa, Jonathan P. Stoye, George Kassiotis

Large-Scale Gene Disruption in Magnaporthe oryzae Identifies MC69, a Secreted Protein Required for Infection by Monocot and Dicot Fungal Pathogens

Hiromasa Saitoh, Shizuko Fujisawa, Chikako Mitsuoka, Akiko Ito, Akiko Hirabuchi, Kyoko Ikeda, Hiroki Irieda, Kae Yoshino, Kentaro Yoshida, Hideo Matsumura, Yukio Tosa, Joe Win, Sophien Kamoun, Yoshitaka Takano, Ryohei Terauchi

Evolutionary Reconstructions of the Transferrin Receptor of Caniforms Supports Canine Parvovirus Being a Re-emerged and Not a Novel Pathogen in Dogs

Jason T. Kaelber, Ann Demogines, Carole E. Harbison, Andrew B. Allison, Laura B. Goodman, Alicia N. Ortega, Sara L. Sawyer, Colin R. Parrish

The Lipopolysaccharide from Capnocytophaga canimorsus Reveals an Unexpected Role of the Core-Oligosaccharide in MD-2 Binding

Simon Ittig, Buko Lindner, Marco Stenta, Pablo Manfredi, Evelina Zdorovenko, Yuriy A. Knirel, Matteo dal Peraro, Guy R. Cornelis, Ulrich Zähringer

Age-Dependent TLR3 Expression of the Intestinal Epithelium Contributes to Rotavirus Susceptibility

Johanna Pott, Silvia Stockinger, Natalia Torow, Anna Smoczek, Cornelia Lindner, Gerald McInerney, Fredrik Bäckhed, Ulrich Baumann, Oliver Pabst, André Bleich, Mathias W. Hornef