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Table of Contents: October 2012

COVER

The genome of the obligate intracellular parasite Trachipleistophora hominis: new insights into microsporidian genome dynamics and reductive evolution.

Image Credit: Christian Hacker and John M. Lucocq, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews.
Issue Image

The micrograph depicts an early spore stage of Trachipleistophora hominis (see Heinz et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002979) prepared with the Tokuyasu method for cryosectioning and stained with uranyl acetate. The image was pseudocolored to highlight several important features of this intracellular parasite. The polar tube is shown in green, the underlying polaroblast in purple, and the spore wall in blue. The spore is separated from the host cell cytoplasm by the parasitophorous vacuole, which is presented in red.

Opinion

Burden of Communicable Disease among the Native and Repatriating Afghans

Syed H. Abidi, Farwa Ali, Farida Shah, Farhat Abbas, Syed Ali

Pearls

Norovirus Immunity and the Great Escape

Kari Debbink, Lisa C. Lindesmith, Eric F. Donaldson, Ralph S. Baric

Review

Host–Pathogen Interaction in Invasive Salmonellosis

Hanna K. de Jong, Chris M. Parry, Tom van der Poll, W. Joost Wiersinga

Research Articles

Transcription Factor Amr1 Induces Melanin Biosynthesis and Suppresses Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

Yangrae Cho, Akhil Srivastava, Robin A. Ohm, Christopher B. Lawrence, Koon-Hui Wang, Igor V. Grigoriev, Sharadchandra P. Marahatta

Niclosamide Is a Proton Carrier and Targets Acidic Endosomes with Broad Antiviral Effects

Andreas Jurgeit, Robert McDowell, Stefan Moese, Eric Meldrum, Reto Schwendener, Urs F. Greber

Deciphering the Acylation Pattern of Yersinia enterocolitica Lipid A

Mar Reinés, Enrique Llobet, Käthe M. Dahlström, Camino Pérez-Gutiérrez, Catalina M. Llompart, Nuria Torrecabota, Tiina A. Salminen, José A. Bengoechea

The Genome of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Trachipleistophora hominis: New Insights into Microsporidian Genome Dynamics and Reductive Evolution

Eva Heinz, Tom A. Williams, Sirintra Nakjang, Christophe J. Noël, Daniel C. Swan, Alina V. Goldberg, Simon R. Harris, Thomas Weinmaier, Stephanie Markert, Dörte Becher, Jörg Bernhardt, Tal Dagan, Christian Hacker, John M. Lucocq, Thomas Schweder, Thomas Rattei, Neil Hall, Robert P. Hirt, T. Martin Embley

Design and Evaluation of Meningococcal Vaccines through Structure-Based Modification of Host and Pathogen Molecules

Steven Johnson, Lionel Tan, Stijn van der Veen, Joseph Caesar, Elena Goicoechea De Jorge, Rachel J. Harding, Xilian Bai, Rachel M. Exley, Philip N. Ward, Nicola Ruivo, Kaushali Trivedi, Elspeth Cumber, Rhian Jones, Luke Newham, David Staunton, Rafael Ufret-Vincenty, Ray Borrow, Matthew C. Pickering, Susan M. Lea, Christoph M. Tang

Neuroimmunological Blood Brain Barrier Opening in Experimental Cerebral Malaria

Adela Nacer, Alexandru Movila, Kerstin Baer, Sebastian A. Mikolajczak, Stefan H. I. Kappe, Ute Frevert

Myeloid-Related Protein-14 Contributes to Protective Immunity in Gram-Negative Pneumonia Derived Sepsis

Ahmed Achouiti, Thomas Vogl, Constantin F. Urban, Marc Röhm, Tijmen J. Hommes, Marieke A. D. van Zoelen, Sandrine Florquin, Johannes Roth, Cornelis van 't Veer, Alex F. de Vos, Tom van der Poll

Targeted Restoration of the Intestinal Microbiota with a Simple, Defined Bacteriotherapy Resolves Relapsing Clostridium difficile Disease in Mice

Trevor D. Lawley, Simon Clare, Alan W. Walker, Mark D. Stares, Thomas R. Connor, Claire Raisen, David Goulding, Roland Rad, Fernanda Schreiber, Cordelia Brandt, Laura J. Deakin, Derek J. Pickard, Sylvia H. Duncan, Harry J. Flint, Taane G. Clark, Julian Parkhill, Gordon Dougan

Fatty Acid Oxidation Is Essential for Egg Production by the Parasitic Flatworm Schistosoma mansoni

Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang, Tori C. Freitas, Eyal Amiel, Bart Everts, Erika L. Pearce, James B. Lok, Edward J. Pearce

Glycoprotein N of Human Cytomegalovirus Protects the Virus from Neutralizing Antibodies

Barbara Kropff, Christiane Burkhardt, Juliane Schott, Jens Nentwich, Tanja Fisch, William Britt, Michael Mach

Identification of FAM111A as an SV40 Host Range Restriction and Adenovirus Helper Factor

Debrah A. Fine, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Megha Padi, Anna Korkhin, Robert L. James, Guillaume Adelmant, Rosa Yoon, Luxuan Guo, Christian Berrios, Ying Zhang, Michael A. Calderwood, Soundarapandian Velmurgan, Jingwei Cheng, Jarrod A. Marto, David E. Hill, Michael E. Cusick, Marc Vidal, Laurence Florens, Michael P. Washburn, Larisa Litovchick, James A. DeCaprio

Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Development 1 (Pfgdv1) and Gametocytogenesis Early Gene Identification and Commitment to Sexual Development

Saliha Eksi, Belinda J. Morahan, Yoseph Haile, Tetsuya Furuya, Hongying Jiang, Omar Ali, Huichun Xu, Kirakorn Kiattibutr, Amreena Suri, Beata Czesny, Adebowale Adeyemo, Timothy G. Myers, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Xin-zhuan Su, Kim C. Williamson

Immunity to Intracellular Salmonella Depends on Surface-associated Antigens

Somedutta Barat, Yvonne Willer, Konstantin Rizos, Beatrice Claudi, Alain Mazé, Anne K. Schemmer, Dennis Kirchhoff, Alexander Schmidt, Neil Burton, Dirk Bumann

Phosphorylation of the Chromatin Binding Domain of KSHV LANA

Crystal Woodard, Meir Shamay, Gangling Liao, Jian Zhu, Ai Na Ng, Renfeng Li, Rob Newman, Hee-Sool Rho, Jianfei Hu, Jun Wan, Jiang Qian, Heng Zhu, S. Diane Hayward

Coevolution and Hierarchical Interactions of Tomato mosaic virus and the Resistance Gene Tm-1

Kazuhiro Ishibashi, Natsuki Mawatari, Shuhei Miyashita, Hirohisa Kishino, Tetsuo Meshi, Masayuki Ishikawa

The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Polymerase Has Multiple RNA Synthesis Activities at the Promoter

Sarah L. Noton, Laure R. Deflubé, Chadene Z. Tremaglio, Rachel Fearns

ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

Kayla T. Wolofsky, Kodjo Ayi, Donald R. Branch, Annika K. Hult, Martin L. Olsson, W. Conrad Liles, Christine M. Cserti-Gazdewich, Kevin C. Kain

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules Target IQGAP1 and Modulate Epithelial Cell Migration

Thommie Karlsson, Maria V. Turkina, Olena Yakymenko, Karl-Eric Magnusson, Elena Vikström

De novo GTP Biosynthesis Is Critical for Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

Carl A. Morrow, Eugene Valkov, Anna Stamp, Eve W. L. Chow, I. Russel Lee, Ania Wronski, Simon J. Williams, Justine M. Hill, Julianne T. Djordjevic, Ulrike Kappler, Bostjan Kobe, James A. Fraser

Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Dysregulates the Canonical Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway

Magdalena Angelova, Kevin Zwezdaryk, MaryBeth Ferris, Bin Shan, Cindy A. Morris, Deborah E. Sullivan

Humanized TLR4/MD-2 Mice Reveal LPS Recognition Differentially Impacts Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica

Adeline M. Hajjar, Robert K. Ernst, Edgardo S. Fortuno III, Alicia S. Brasfield, Cathy S. Yam, Lindsay A. Newlon, Tobias R. Kollmann, Samuel I. Miller, Christopher B. Wilson

Scavenger Receptor Class A Plays a Central Role in Mediating Mortality and the Development of the Pro-Inflammatory Phenotype in Polymicrobial Sepsis

Tammy R. Ozment, Tuanzhu Ha, Kevin F. Breuel, Tiffany R. Ford, Donald A. Ferguson, John Kalbfleisch, John B. Schweitzer, Jim L. Kelley, Chuanfu Li, David L. Williams

Immune Clearance of Attenuated Rabies Virus Results in Neuronal Survival with Altered Gene Expression

Emily A. Gomme, Christoph Wirblich, Sankar Addya, Glenn F. Rall, Matthias J. Schnell

Clonality Despite Sex: The Evolution of Host-Associated Sexual Neighborhoods in the Pathogenic Fungus Penicillium marneffei

Daniel A. Henk, Revital Shahar-Golan, Khuraijam Ranjana Devi, Kylie J. Boyce, Nengyong Zhan, Natalie D. Fedorova, William C. Nierman, Po-Ren Hsueh, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Tran P. M. Sieu, Nguyen Van Kinh, Heiman Wertheim, Stephen G. Baker, Jeremy N. Day, Nongnuch Vanittanakom, Elaine M. Bignell, Alex Andrianopoulos, Matthew C. Fisher

Seasonal Pulses of Marburg Virus Circulation in Juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus Bats Coincide with Periods of Increased Risk of Human Infection

Brian R. Amman, Serena A. Carroll, Zachary D. Reed, Tara K. Sealy, Stephen Balinandi, Robert Swanepoel, Alan Kemp, Bobbie Rae Erickson, James A. Comer, Shelley Campbell, Deborah L. Cannon, Marina L. Khristova, Patrick Atimnedi, Christopher D. Paddock, Rebekah J. Kent Crockett, Timothy D. Flietstra, Kelly L. Warfield, Robert Unfer, Edward Katongole-Mbidde, Robert Downing, Jordan W. Tappero, Sherif R. Zaki, Pierre E. Rollin, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Stuart T. Nichol, Jonathan S. Towner

Structural Basis of Differential Neutralization of DENV-1 Genotypes by an Antibody that Recognizes a Cryptic Epitope

S. Kyle Austin, Kimberly A. Dowd, Bimmi Shrestha, Christopher A. Nelson, Melissa A. Edeling, Syd Johnson, Theodore C. Pierson, Michael S. Diamond, Daved H. Fremont

DENV Inhibits Type I IFN Production in Infected Cells by Cleaving Human STING

Sebastian Aguirre, Ana M. Maestre, Sarah Pagni, Jenish R. Patel, Timothy Savage, Delia Gutman, Kevin Maringer, Dabeiba Bernal-Rubio, Reed S. Shabman, Viviana Simon, Juan R. Rodriguez-Madoz, Lubbertus C. F. Mulder, Glen N. Barber, Ana Fernandez-Sesma

Genome Analyses of an Aggressive and Invasive Lineage of the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen

David E. L. Cooke, Liliana M. Cano, Sylvain Raffaele, Ruairidh A. Bain, Louise R. Cooke, Graham J. Etherington, Kenneth L. Deahl, Rhys A. Farrer, Eleanor M. Gilroy, Erica M. Goss, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Ingo Hein, Daniel MacLean, James W. McNicol, Eva Randall, Ricardo F. Oliva, Mathieu A. Pel, David S. Shaw, Julie N. Squires, Moray C. Taylor, Vivianne G. A. A. Vleeshouwers, Paul R. J. Birch, Alison K. Lees, Sophien Kamoun

Evolutionary History and Attenuation of Myxoma Virus on Two Continents

Peter J. Kerr, Elodie Ghedin, Jay V. DePasse, Adam Fitch, Isabella M. Cattadori, Peter J. Hudson, David C. Tscharke, Andrew F. Read, Edward C. Holmes

Virologic and Immunologic Evidence Supporting an Association between HHV-6 and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Elisabetta Caselli, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Roberta Rizzo, Sabrina Benedetti, Debora Martorelli, Giorgio Trasforini, Enzo Cassai, Ettore C. degli Uberti, Dario Di Luca, Riccardo Dolcetti

A Tail-like Assembly at the Portal Vertex in Intact Herpes Simplex Type-1 Virions

Michael F. Schmid, Corey W. Hecksel, Ryan H. Rochat, David Bhella, Wah Chiu, Frazer J. Rixon

Macaque Homologs of EBV and KSHV Show Uniquely Different Associations with Simian AIDS-related Lymphomas

A. Gregory Bruce, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Serge Barcy, Angela M. Bakke, Patrick Lewis, Che-Chung Tsai, Robert D. Murnane, Timothy M. Rose

Rhinovirus Attenuates Non-typeable Hemophilus influenzae-stimulated IL-8 Responses via TLR2-dependent Degradation of IRAK-1

Benjamin L. Unger, Andrea N. Faris, Shyamala Ganesan, Adam T. Comstock, Marc B. Hershenson, Umadevi S. Sajjan