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Table of Contents: November 2012

COVER

Infection-induced interaction between the mosquito circulatory and immune systems.

Image Credit: Jonas G. King and Julián F. Hillyer, Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University.
Issue Image

The fluorescence image details the structural organization of the heart of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (see King and Hillyer). The point of view is top down, with the mosquito's body lying horizontally with its head to the left (outside of the image). Muscle is labeled green, and shows the tube-like heart extending horizontally across the body and the diamond shaped alary muscles projecting vertically onto the heart. The pericardial cells, labeled red, are pinocytic cells that flank the heart. Cell nuclei are labeled blue.

Opinion

Egyptian H5N1 Influenza Viruses—Cause for Concern?

Gabriele Neumann, Catherine A. Macken, Alexander I. Karasin, Ron A. M. Fouchier, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Pearls

Pneumocystis: Where Does It Live?

Francis Gigliotti, Terry W. Wright

Aneuploidy and Drug Resistance in Pathogenic Fungi

Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, Yun C. Chang

Reviews

Epigenetics of Host–Pathogen Interactions: The Road Ahead and the Road Behind

Elena Gómez-Díaz, Mireia Jordà, Miguel Angel Peinado, Ana Rivero

Vaccines: From Empirical Development to Rational Design

Christine Rueckert, Carlos A. Guzmán

Research Articles

Chitinase Dependent Control of Protozoan Cyst Burden in the Brain

J. Philip Nance, Kevin M. Vannella, Danielle Worth, Clément David, David Carter, Shahani Noor, Cedric Hubeau, Lori Fitz, Thomas E. Lane, Thomas A. Wynn, Emma H. Wilson

Intramolecular Interaction Influences Binding of the Flax L5 and L6 Resistance Proteins to their AvrL567 Ligands

Michael Ravensdale, Maud Bernoux, Thomas Ve, Bostjan Kobe, Peter H. Thrall, Jeffrey G. Ellis, Peter N. Dodds

Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Local Transmission Patterns of Mycobacterium bovis in Sympatric Cattle and Badger Populations

Roman Biek, Anthony O'Hare, David Wright, Tom Mallon, Carl McCormick, Richard J. Orton, Stanley McDowell, Hannah Trewby, Robin A. Skuce, Rowland R. Kao

The Stringent Response of Staphylococcus aureus and Its Impact on Survival after Phagocytosis through the Induction of Intracellular PSMs Expression

Tobias Geiger, Patrice Francois, Manuel Liebeke, Martin Fraunholz, Christiane Goerke, Bernhard Krismer, Jacques Schrenzel, Michael Lalk, Christiane Wolz

CcpA Regulates Arginine Biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus through Repression of Proline Catabolism

Austin S. Nuxoll, Steven M. Halouska, Marat R. Sadykov, Mark L. Hanke, Kenneth W. Bayles, Tammy Kielian, Robert Powers, Paul D. Fey

Relatively Low Level of Antigen-specific Monocytes Detected in Blood from Untreated Tuberculosis Patients Using CD4+ T-cell Receptor Tetramers

Yuhong Huang, Yan Huang, Yimin Fang, Juan Wang, Yan Li, Nan Wang, Jianbo Zhang, Ming Gao, Lirong Huang, Fangfang Yang, Cong Wang, Shuxian Lin, Yanan Yao, Liangliang Ren, Yi Chen, Xuanjing Du, Dan Xie, Rongshun Wu, Kouxing Zhang, Lifang Jiang, Xinbing Yu, Xiaomin Lai

HCMV-Infected Cells Maintain Efficient Nucleotide Excision Repair of the Viral Genome while Abrogating Repair of the Host Genome

John M. O'Dowd, Anamaria G. Zavala, Celeste J. Brown, Toshio Mori, Elizabeth A. Fortunato

IL-1β Signaling Promotes CNS-Intrinsic Immune Control of West Nile Virus Infection

Hilario J. Ramos, Marion C. Lanteri, Gabriele Blahnik, Amina Negash, Mehul S. Suthar, Margaret M. Brassil, Khushbu Sodhi, Piper M. Treuting, Michael P. Busch, Philip J. Norris, Michael Gale Jr.

Role of Transmitted Gag CTL Polymorphisms in Defining Replicative Capacity and Early HIV-1 Pathogenesis

Jessica L. Prince, Daniel T. Claiborne, Jonathan M. Carlson, Malinda Schaefer, Tianwei Yu, Shabir Lahki, Heather A. Prentice, Ling Yue, Sundaram A. Vishwanathan, William Kilembe, Paul Goepfert, Matthew A. Price, Jill Gilmour, Joseph Mulenga, Paul Farmer, Cynthia A. Derdeyn, Jiaming Tang, David Heckerman, Richard A. Kaslow, Susan A. Allen, Eric Hunter

Rapid Antigen Processing and Presentation of a Protective and Immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted Hepatitis C Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell Epitope

Julia Schmidt, Astrid K. N. Iversen, Stefan Tenzer, Emma Gostick, David A. Price, Volker Lohmann, Ute Distler, Paul Bowness, Hansjörg Schild, Hubert E. Blum, Paul Klenerman, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme

A Trade-off between the Fitness Cost of Functional Integrases and Long-term Stability of Integrons

Irina Starikova, Klaus Harms, Pål Haugen, Tracy T. M. Lunde, Raul Primicerio, Ørjan Samuelsen, Kaare M. Nielsen, Pål J. Johnsen

Molecular Anatomy and Number of Antigen Specific CD8 T Cells Required to Cause Type 1 Diabetes

Michael B. A. Oldstone, Kurt H. Edelmann, Dorian B. McGavern, Justin T. Cruite, Megan J. Welch

Neutrophil-derived IL-1β Is Sufficient for Abscess Formation in Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus in Mice

John S. Cho, Yi Guo, Romela Irene Ramos, Frank Hebroni, Seema B. Plaisier, Caiyun Xuan, Jennifer L. Granick, Hironori Matsushima, Akira Takashima, Yoichiro Iwakura, Ambrose L. Cheung, Genhong Cheng, Delphine J. Lee, Scott I. Simon, Lloyd S. Miller

A Forward Genetic Screen Reveals that Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase 3 Regulates Egress in Toxoplasma

Erin Garrison, Moritz Treeck, Emma Ehret, Heidi Butz, Tamila Garbuz, Benji P. Oswald, Matt Settles, John Boothroyd, Gustavo Arrizabalaga

Unique Biofilm Signature, Drug Susceptibility and Decreased Virulence in Drosophila through the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Two-Component System PprAB

Sophie de Bentzmann, Caroline Giraud, Christophe S. Bernard, Virginie Calderon, Friederike Ewald, Patrick Plésiat, Cathy Nguyen, Didier Grunwald, Ina Attree, Katy Jeannot, Marie-Odile Fauvarque, Christophe Bordi

Species-Specific Inhibition of RIG-I Ubiquitination and IFN Induction by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein

Ricardo Rajsbaum, Randy A. Albrecht, May K. Wang, Natalya P. Maharaj, Gijs A. Versteeg, Estanislao Nistal-Villán, Adolfo García-Sastre, Michaela U. Gack

Brucella β 1,2 Cyclic Glucan Is an Activator of Human and Mouse Dendritic Cells

Anna Martirosyan, Camino Pérez-Gutierrez, Romain Banchereau, Hélène Dutartre, Patrick Lecine, Melissa Dullaers, Marielle Mello, Suzana Pinto Salcedo, Alexandre Muller, Lee Leserman, Yves Levy, Gerard Zurawski, Sandy Zurawski, Edgardo Moreno, Ignacio Moriyón, Eynav Klechevsky, Jacques Banchereau, SangKon Oh, Jean-Pierre Gorvel

Therapeutic Helminth Infection of Macaques with Idiopathic Chronic Diarrhea Alters the Inflammatory Signature and Mucosal Microbiota of the Colon

Mara Jana Broadhurst, Amir Ardeshir, Bittoo Kanwar, Julie Mirpuri, Uma Mahesh Gundra, Jacqueline M. Leung, Kirsten E. Wiens, Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Charlie C. Kim, Felix Yarovinsky, Nicholas W. Lerche, Joseph M. McCune, P'ng Loke

The Capping Domain in RalF Regulates Effector Functions

Eric Alix, Laurent Chesnel, Brad J. Bowzard, Aimee M. Tucker, Anna Delprato, Jacqueline Cherfils, David O. Wood, Richard A. Kahn, Craig R. Roy

InlA Promotes Dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes to the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes during Food Borne Infection of Mice

Elsa N. Bou Ghanem, Grant S. Jones, Tanya Myers-Morales, Pooja D. Patil, Achmad N. Hidayatullah, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio

Trypanosome Motion Represents an Adaptation to the Crowded Environment of the Vertebrate Bloodstream

Niko Heddergott, Timothy Krüger, Sujin B. Babu, Ai Wei, Erik Stellamanns, Sravanti Uppaluri, Thomas Pfohl, Holger Stark, Markus Engstler

The Quorum Sensing Volatile Molecule 2-Amino Acetophenon Modulates Host Immune Responses in a Manner that Promotes Life with Unwanted Guests

Arunava Bandyopadhaya, Meenu Kesarwani, Yok-Ai Que, Jianxin He, Katie Padfield, Ronald Tompkins, Laurence G. Rahme

Sensitivity of Mitochondrial Transcription and Resistance of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Nuclear Transcription to Antiviral Ribonucleosides

Jamie J. Arnold, Suresh D. Sharma, Joy Y. Feng, Adrian S. Ray, Eric D. Smidansky, Maria L. Kireeva, Aesop Cho, Jason Perry, Jennifer E. Vela, Yeojin Park, Yili Xu, Yang Tian, Darius Babusis, Ona Barauskus, Blake R. Peterson, Averell Gnatt, Mikhail Kashlev, Weidong Zhong, Craig E. Cameron

Semaphorin-7A Is an Erythrocyte Receptor for P. falciparum Merozoite-Specific TRAP Homolog, MTRAP

S. Josefin Bartholdson, Leyla Y. Bustamante, Cecile Crosnier, Steven Johnson, Susan Lea, Julian C. Rayner, Gavin J. Wright

Tubular Structure Induced by a Plant Virus Facilitates Viral Spread in Its Vector Insect

Qian Chen, Hongyan Chen, Qianzhuo Mao, Qifei Liu, Takumi Shimizu, Tamaki Uehara-Ichiki, Zujian Wu, Lianhui Xie, Toshihiro Omura, Taiyun Wei

Heterotrimeric G-protein Signaling Is Critical to Pathogenic Processes in Entamoeba histolytica

Dustin E. Bosch, Adam J. Kimple, Robin E. Muller, Patrick M. Giguère, Mischa Machius, Francis S. Willard, Brenda R. S. Temple, David P. Siderovski

Phenoloxidase Activity Acts as a Mosquito Innate Immune Response against Infection with Semliki Forest Virus

Julio Rodriguez-Andres, Seema Rani, Margus Varjak, Margo E. Chase-Topping, Markus H. Beck, Mhairi C. Ferguson, Esther Schnettler, Rennos Fragkoudis, Gerald Barry, Andres Merits, John K. Fazakerley, Michael R. Strand, Alain Kohl

Tim-3-Expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Human Tuberculosis (TB) Exhibit Polarized Effector Memory Phenotypes and Stronger Anti-TB Effector Functions

Yueqin Qiu, Jianbo Chen, Hongying Liao, Yan Zhang, Hua Wang, Shaoyuan Li, Yanfen Luo, Danyun Fang, Guobao Li, Boping Zhou, Ling Shen, Crystal Y. Chen, Dan Huang, Jiye Cai, Kaiyuan Cao, Lifang Jiang, Gucheng Zeng, Zheng W. Chen

Distinct Effects on Diversifying Selection by Two Mechanisms of Immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae

Yuan Li, Todd Gierahn, Claudette M. Thompson, Krzysztof Trzciński, Christopher B. Ford, Nicholas Croucher, Paulo Gouveia, Jessica B. Flechtner, Richard Malley, Marc Lipsitch

Enhancing Blockade of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Invasion: Assessing Combinations of Antibodies against PfRH5 and Other Merozoite Antigens

Andrew R. Williams, Alexander D. Douglas, Kazutoyo Miura, Joseph J. Illingworth, Prateek Choudhary, Linda M. Murungi, Julie M. Furze, Ababacar Diouf, Olivo Miotto, Cécile Crosnier, Gavin J. Wright, Dominic P. Kwiatkowski, Rick M. Fairhurst, Carole A. Long, Simon J. Draper

The Polymorphic Pseudokinase ROP5 Controls Virulence in Toxoplasma gondii by Regulating the Active Kinase ROP18

Michael S. Behnke, Sarah J. Fentress, Mona Mashayekhi, Lucy X. Li, Gregory A. Taylor, L. David Sibley

Mapping the Phosphoproteome of Influenza A and B Viruses by Mass Spectrometry

Edward C. Hutchinson, Eleanor M. Denham, Benjamin Thomas, David C. Trudgian, Svenja S. Hester, Gabriela Ridlova, Ashley York, Lauren Turrell, Ervin Fodor

Structural and Functional Insights into the HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitor Binding Pocket

Kayoko Waki, Stewart R. Durell, Ferri Soheilian, Kunio Nagashima, Scott L. Butler, Eric O. Freed

Early Mechanisms of Pathobiology Are Revealed by Transcriptional Temporal Dynamics in Hippocampal CA1 Neurons of Prion Infected Mice

Anna Majer, Sarah J. Medina, Yulian Niu, Bernard Abrenica, Kathy J. Manguiat, Kathy L. Frost, Clark S. Philipson, Debra L. Sorensen, Stephanie A. Booth

Changes in JC Virus-Specific T Cell Responses during Natalizumab Treatment and in Natalizumab-Associated Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Molly R. Perkins, Caroline Ryschkewitsch, Julia C. Liebner, Maria Chiara G. Monaco, Danielle Himelfarb, Sara Ireland, Annelys Roque, Heather L. Edward, Peter N. Jensen, Gina Remington, Thomas Abraham, Jaspreet Abraham, Benjamin Greenberg, Charles Kaufman, Chris LaGanke, Nancy L. Monson, Xiaoning Xu, Elliot Frohman, Eugene O. Major, Daniel C. Douek

Genome Structure and Reproductive Behaviour Influence the Evolutionary Potential of a Fungal Phytopathogen

Guillaume Daverdin, Thierry Rouxel, Lilian Gout, Jean-Noël Aubertot, Isabelle Fudal, Michel Meyer, Francis Parlange, Julien Carpezat, Marie-Hélène Balesdent

Bromodomain Protein Brd4 Plays a Key Role in Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA Replication

Xin Wang, Jing Li, Rachel M. Schowalter, Jing Jiao, Christopher B. Buck, Jianxin You

A Hsp40 Chaperone Protein Interacts with and Modulates the Cellular Distribution of the Primase Protein of Human Cytomegalovirus

Yonggang Pei, Wenmin Fu, Ed Yang, Ao Shen, Yuan-Chuan Chen, Hao Gong, Jun Chen, Jun Huang, Gengfu Xiao, Fenyong Liu

Prion Pathogenesis Is Faithfully Reproduced in Cerebellar Organotypic Slice Cultures

Jeppe Falsig, Tiziana Sonati, Uli S. Herrmann, Dino Saban, Bei Li, Karina Arroyo, Boris Ballmer, Pawel P. Liberski, Adriano Aguzzi

A Heparan-Dependent Herpesvirus Targets the Olfactory Neuroepithelium for Host Entry

Ricardo Milho, Bruno Frederico, Stacey Efstathiou, Philip G. Stevenson

Identification of a Novel Splice Variant Form of the Influenza A Virus M2 Ion Channel with an Antigenically Distinct Ectodomain

Helen M. Wise, Edward C. Hutchinson, Brett W. Jagger, Amanda D. Stuart, Zi H. Kang, Nicole Robb, Louis M. Schwartzman, John C. Kash, Ervin Fodor, Andrew E. Firth, Julia R. Gog, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Paul Digard

Expression of a Cryptic Secondary Sigma Factor Gene Unveils Natural Competence for DNA Transformation in Staphylococcus aureus

Kazuya Morikawa, Aya J. Takemura, Yumiko Inose, Melody Tsai, Le Thuy Nguyen Thi, Toshiko Ohta, Tarek Msadek

Circulating Virus Load Determines the Size of Bottlenecks in Viral Populations Progressing within a Host

Serafín Gutiérrez, Michel Yvon, Elodie Pirolles, Eliza Garzo, Alberto Fereres, Yannis Michalakis, Stéphane Blanc

Histone H1 Plays a Role in Heterochromatin Formation and VSG Expression Site Silencing in Trypanosoma brucei

Megan L. Povelones, Eva Gluenz, Marcin Dembek, Keith Gull, Gloria Rudenko

Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

Johanna Nykyri, Outi Niemi, Patrik Koskinen, Jussi Nokso-Koivisto, Miia Pasanen, Martin Broberg, Ilja Plyusnin, Petri Törönen, Liisa Holm, Minna Pirhonen, E. Tapio Palva