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Table of Contents: December 2012

COVER

"Gliding" motility of Toxoplasma gondii.

Image Credit: James M. McCoy, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research/Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne.
Issue Image

The movement of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can appear chaotic and haphazard. However, Z-projection of images captured by video microscopy reveals the rhythmic patterns underlying this chaos (see McCoy et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003066). By overlaying a heat map (based on pixel density), the paths parasites take as they move across a surface are vividly highlighted, revealing the three simple types of motility that create such complexity. So-called "twirling" motility appears as bright, starlike shapes; "circular" as looped rings; and "helical" motility as long links of chain.

Opinion

A View on the Role of Epigenetics in the Biology of Malaria Parasites

Alfred Cortés, Valerie M. Crowley, Alejandro Vaquero, Till S. Voss

Pearls

Zinc Exploitation by Pathogenic Fungi

Duncan Wilson, Francesco Citiulo, Bernhard Hube

Reviews

Virus-Encoded microRNAs: An Overview and a Look to the Future

Rodney P. Kincaid, Christopher S. Sullivan

Research Articles

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection in FVB Mouse Produces Hemorrhagic Disease

Frederick J. Schnell, Sarah Sundholm, Stacy Crumley, Patrick L. Iversen, Dan V. Mourich

Global Gene Transcriptome Analysis in Vaccinated Cattle Revealed a Dominant Role of IL-22 for Protection against Bovine Tuberculosis

Sabin Bhuju, Elihu Aranday-Cortes, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, Zhou Xing, Mahavir Singh, H. Martin Vordermeier

A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

James C. Bull, Eugene V. Ryabov, Gill Prince, Andrew Mead, Cunjin Zhang, Laura A. Baxter, Judith K. Pell, Juliet L. Osborne, Dave Chandler

Inhibition of a NEDD8 Cascade Restores Restriction of HIV by APOBEC3G

David J. Stanley, Koen Bartholomeeusen, David C. Crosby, Dong Young Kim, Eunju Kwon, Linda Yen, Nathalie Caretta Cartozo, Ming Li, Stefanie Jäger, Jeremy Mason-Herr, Fumiaki Hayashi, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Nevan J. Krogan, Reuben S. Harris, Boris Matija Peterlin, John D. Gross

Botulinum Neurotoxins A and E Undergo Retrograde Axonal Transport in Primary Motor Neurons

Laura Restani, Francesco Giribaldi, Maria Manich, Kinga Bercsenyi, Guillermo Menendez, Ornella Rossetto, Matteo Caleo, Giampietro Schiavo

Nasal Colonisation by Staphylococcus aureus Depends upon Clumping Factor B Binding to the Squamous Epithelial Cell Envelope Protein Loricrin

Michelle E. Mulcahy, Joan A. Geoghegan, Ian R. Monk, Kate M. O'Keeffe, Evelyn J. Walsh, Timothy J. Foster, Rachel M. McLoughlin

Central Nervous System Compartmentalization of HIV-1 Subtype C Variants Early and Late in Infection in Young Children

Christa Buckheit Sturdevant, Anna Dow, Cassandra B. Jabara, Sarah B. Joseph, Gretja Schnell, Nobutoki Takamune, Macpherson Mallewa, Robert S. Heyderman, Annelies Van Rie, Ronald Swanstrom

Statins Decrease Neuroinflammation and Prevent Cognitive Impairment after Cerebral Malaria

Patricia A. Reis, Vanessa Estato, Tathiany I. da Silva, Joana C. d'Avila, Luciana D. Siqueira, Edson F. Assis, Patricia T. Bozza, Fernando A. Bozza, Eduardo V. Tibiriça, Guy A. Zimmerman, Hugo C. Castro-Faria-Neto

p12 Tethers the Murine Leukemia Virus Pre-integration Complex to Mitotic Chromosomes

Efrat Elis, Marcelo Ehrlich, Adi Prizan-Ravid, Nihay Laham-Karam, Eran Bacharach

Blood Flukes Exploit Peyer's Patch Lymphoid Tissue to Facilitate Transmission from the Mammalian Host

Joseph D. Turner, Priyanka Narang, Mark C. Coles, Adrian P. Mountford

Transmission of Equine Influenza Virus during an Outbreak Is Characterized by Frequent Mixed Infections and Loose Transmission Bottlenecks

Joseph Hughes, Richard C. Allen, Marc Baguelin, Katie Hampson, Gregory J. Baillie, Debra Elton, J. Richard Newton, Paul Kellam, James L. N. Wood, Edward C. Holmes, Pablo R. Murcia

COX5B Regulates MAVS-mediated Antiviral Signaling through Interaction with ATG5 and Repressing ROS Production

Yuanyuan Zhao, Xiaofeng Sun, Xuanli Nie, Liwei Sun, Tie-shan Tang, Dahua Chen, Qinmiao Sun

Human Tetherin Exerts Strong Selection Pressure on the HIV-1 Group N Vpu Protein

Daniel Sauter, Daniel Unterweger, Michael Vogl, Shariq M. Usmani, Anke Heigele, Silvia F. Kluge, Elisabeth Hermkes, Markus Moll, Edward Barker, Martine Peeters, Gerald H. Learn, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Joëlle V. Fritz, Oliver T. Fackler, Beatrice H. Hahn, Frank Kirchhoff

4′-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase PptT, a New Drug Target Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Persistence In Vivo

Cécile Leblanc, Thomas Prudhomme, Guillaume Tabouret, Aurélie Ray, Sophie Burbaud, Stéphanie Cabantous, Lionel Mourey, Christophe Guilhot, Christian Chalut

How the Fly Balances Its Ability to Combat Different Pathogens

Moria C. Chambers, Karla L. Lightfield, David S. Schneider

RelAp43, a Member of the NF-κB Family Involved in Innate Immune Response against Lyssavirus Infection

Sophie Luco, Olivier Delmas, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Frédéric Tangy, Robert Weil, Hervé Bourhy

Influenza Infection Rates, Measurement Errors and the Interpretation of Paired Serology

Simon Cauchemez, Peter Horby, Annette Fox, Le Quynh Mai, Le Thi Thanh, Pham Quang Thai, Le Nguyen Minh Hoa, Nguyen Tran Hien, Neil M. Ferguson

Block of Death-Receptor Apoptosis Protects Mouse Cytomegalovirus from Macrophages and Is a Determinant of Virulence in Immunodeficient Hosts

Linda Ebermann, Zsolt Ruzsics, Carlos A. Guzmán, Nico van Rooijen, Rosaely Casalegno-Garduño, Ulrich Koszinowski, Luka Čičin-Šain

Antigenic Subversion: A Novel Mechanism of Host Immune Evasion by Ebola Virus

Gopi S. Mohan, Wenfang Li, Ling Ye, Richard W. Compans, Chinglai Yang

The Polyfunctionality of Human Memory CD8+ T Cells Elicited by Acute and Chronic Virus Infections Is Not Influenced by Age

Alina Lelic, Chris P. Verschoor, Mario Ventresca, Robin Parsons, Carole Evelegh, Dawn Bowdish, Michael R. Betts, Mark B. Loeb, Jonathan L. Bramson

VipD of Legionella pneumophila Targets Activated Rab5 and Rab22 to Interfere with Endosomal Trafficking in Macrophages

Bonsu Ku, Kwang-Hoon Lee, Wei Sun Park, Chul-Su Yang, Jianning Ge, Seong-Gyu Lee, Sun-Shin Cha, Feng Shao, Won Do Heo, Jae U. Jung, Byung-Ha Oh

The Nuclear Chaperone Nucleophosmin Escorts an Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen to Establish Transcriptional Cascades for Latent Infection in Human B Cells

Cheng-Der Liu, Ya-Lin Chen, Yi-Li Min, Bo Zhao, Chi-Ping Cheng, Myung-Soo Kang, Shu-Jun Chiu, Elliott Kieff, Chih-Wen Peng

Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Dothideomycetes Fungi

Robin A. Ohm, Nicolas Feau, Bernard Henrissat, Conrad L. Schoch, Benjamin A. Horwitz, Kerrie W. Barry, Bradford J. Condon, Alex C. Copeland, Braham Dhillon, Fabian Glaser, Cedar N. Hesse, Idit Kosti, Kurt LaButti, Erika A. Lindquist, Susan Lucas, Asaf A. Salamov, Rosie E. Bradshaw, Lynda Ciuffetti, Richard C. Hamelin, Gert H. J. Kema, Christopher Lawrence, James A. Scott, Joseph W. Spatafora, B. Gillian Turgeon, Pierre J. G. M. de Wit, Shaobin Zhong, Stephen B. Goodwin, Igor V. Grigoriev

GABAergic Signaling Is Linked to a Hypermigratory Phenotype in Dendritic Cells Infected by Toxoplasma gondii

Jonas M. Fuks, Romanico B. G. Arrighi, Jessica M. Weidner, Suresh Kumar Mendu, Zhe Jin, Robert P. A. Wallin, Bence Rethi, Bryndis Birnir, Antonio Barragan

Three-Dimensional Architecture and Biogenesis of Membrane Structures Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Replication

Inés Romero-Brey, Andreas Merz, Abhilash Chiramel, Ji-Young Lee, Petr Chlanda, Uta Haselman, Rachel Santarella-Mellwig, Anja Habermann, Simone Hoppe, Stephanie Kallis, Paul Walther, Claude Antony, Jacomine Krijnse-Locker, Ralf Bartenschlager

Influenza Human Monoclonal Antibody 1F1 Interacts with Three Major Antigenic Sites and Residues Mediating Human Receptor Specificity in H1N1 Viruses

Tshidi Tsibane, Damian C. Ekiert, Jens C. Krause, Osvaldo Martinez, James E. Crowe Jr., Ian A. Wilson, Christopher F. Basler

Identification of an Acinetobacter baumannii Zinc Acquisition System that Facilitates Resistance to Calprotectin-mediated Zinc Sequestration

M. Indriati Hood, Brittany L. Mortensen, Jessica L. Moore, Yaofang Zhang, Thomas E. Kehl-Fie, Norie Sugitani, Walter J. Chazin, Richard M. Caprioli, Eric P. Skaar

Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Lacking the Pathogenicity Island-2 Type 3 Secretion System Grow to High Bacterial Numbers inside Phagocytes in Mice

Andrew J. Grant, Fiona J. E. Morgan, Trevelyan J. McKinley, Gemma L. Foster, Duncan J. Maskell, Pietro Mastroeni

MiniCD4 Microbicide Prevents HIV Infection of Human Mucosal Explants and Vaginal Transmission of SHIV162P3 in Cynomolgus Macaques

Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Laurence Morellato-Castillo, Joachim Brouwers, Patrick Augustijns, Kawthar Bouchemal, Gilles Ponchel, Oscar H. P. Ramos, Carolina Herrera, Martha Stefanidou, Robin Shattock, Leo Heyndrickx, Guido Vanham, Pascal Kessler, Roger Le Grand, Loïc Martin

Clostridium difficile Toxin B Causes Epithelial Cell Necrosis through an Autoprocessing-Independent Mechanism

Nicole M. Chumbler, Melissa A. Farrow, Lynne A. Lapierre, Jeffrey L. Franklin, David Haslam, James R. Goldenring, D. Borden Lacy

The GM2 Glycan Serves as a Functional Coreceptor for Serotype 1 Reovirus

Kerstin Reiss, Jennifer E. Stencel, Yan Liu, Bärbel S. Blaum, Dirk M. Reiter, Ten Feizi, Terence S. Dermody, Thilo Stehle