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Table of Contents: January 2013

COVER

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging orthobunyavirus of ruminants discovered in November 2011 in Germany.

Image Credit: Vanessa Herder, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany
Issue Image

The virus causes malformations in neonatal ruminants, where it replicates predominantly in the neurons of the grey matter (see Varela et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003133). Picture shows a coronal brain section of a calf presenting large cavities with severely reduced thickness of the cortex (poroencephaly), a malformation commonly observed in neonatal ruminants with naturally occurring SBV infection.

Opinion

Biosafety Level-4 Laboratories in Europe: Opportunities for Public Health, Diagnostics, and Research

Carla Nisii, Concetta Castilletti, Hervé Raoul, Roger Hewson, David Brown, Robin Gopal, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Gunther, Ali Mirazimi, Tuija Koivula, Heinz Feldmann, Antonino Di Caro, Maria R. Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito

Pearls

The Importance of Prions

Glenn C. Telling

Loss and Retention of RNA Interference in Fungi and Parasites

Francisco E. Nicolás, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Rosa M. Ruiz-Vázquez

Make It, Take It, or Leave It: Heme Metabolism of Parasites

Luděk Kořený, Miroslav Oborník, Julius Lukeš

Innate Sensing of Chitin and Chitosan

Chelsea L. Bueter, Charles A. Specht, Stuart M. Levitz

Reviews

The Battle between Rotavirus and Its Host for Control of the Interferon Signaling Pathway

Michelle M. Arnold, Adrish Sen, Harry B. Greenberg, John T. Patton

Viral and Bacterial Interactions in the Upper Respiratory Tract

Astrid A. T. M. Bosch, Giske Biesbroek, Krzysztof Trzcinski, Elisabeth A. M. Sanders, Debby Bogaert

Determinants for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis Disease

Laura-Isobel McCall, Wen-Wei Zhang, Greg Matlashewski

Research Articles

Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to DC-SIGN Promotes ASK-1-Dependent Activation-Induced Apoptosis of Human Dendritic Cells

Yongxiong Chen, Shiuh-Lin Hwang, Vera S. F. Chan, Nancy P. Y. Chung, Shu-Rong Wang, Zhongye Li, Jing Ma, Chia-Wei Lin, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Kao-Ping Chang, Sui-Sum Kung, Yi-Chia Wu, Cheng-Wei Chu, Hsiao-Ting Tai, George F. Gao, Bojian Zheng, Kazunari K. Yokoyama, Jonathan M. Austyn, Chen-Lung S. Lin

Discovery of a Siderophore Export System Essential for Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Ryan M. Wells, Christopher M. Jones, Zhaoyong Xi, Alexander Speer, Olga Danilchanka, Kathryn S. Doornbos, Peibei Sun, Fangming Wu, Changlin Tian, Michael Niederweis

The Tomato Prf Complex Is a Molecular Trap for Bacterial Effectors Based on Pto Transphosphorylation

Vardis Ntoukakis, Alexi L. Balmuth, Tatiana S. Mucyn, Jose R. Gutierrez, Alexandra M. E. Jones, John P. Rathjen

Bifurcation of Arabidopsis NLR Immune Signaling via Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinases

Xiquan Gao, Xin Chen, Wenwei Lin, Sixue Chen, Dongping Lu, Yajie Niu, Lei Li, Cheng Cheng, Matthew McCormack, Jen Sheen, Libo Shan, Ping He

Kinetics of Antigen Expression and Epitope Presentation during Virus Infection

Nathan P. Croft, Stewart A. Smith, Yik Chun Wong, Chor Teck Tan, Nadine L. Dudek, Inge E. A. Flesch, Leon C. W. Lin, David C. Tscharke, Anthony W. Purcell

ActA Promotes Listeria monocytogenes Aggregation, Intestinal Colonization and Carriage

Laetitia Travier, Stéphanie Guadagnini, Edith Gouin, Alexandre Dufour, Viviane Chenal-Francisque, Pascale Cossart, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Olivier Disson, Marc Lecuit

Expression of Cytosolic Peroxiredoxins in Plasmodium berghei Ookinetes Is Regulated by Environmental Factors in the Mosquito Bloodmeal

Benjamin A. Turturice, Michael A. Lamm, James J. Tasch, Angelika Zalewski, Rachel Kooistra, Eric H. Schroeter, Sapna Sharma, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu, Stefan M. Kanzok

Novel Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Model of Human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B Infections: Immunologic, Virologic and Radiologic Characterization

Emily Leibovitch, Jillian E. Wohler, Sheila M. Cummings Macri, Kelsey Motanic, Erin Harberts, María I. Gaitán, Pietro Maggi, Mary Ellis, Susan Westmoreland, Afonso Silva, Daniel S. Reich, Steven Jacobson

Functional Characterization of HLA-G+ Regulatory T Cells in HIV-1 Infection

Chun Li, Ilona Toth, Julian Schulze zur Wiesch, Florencia Pereyra, Jennifer Rychert, Eric S. Rosenberg, Jan van Lunzen, Mathias Lichterfeld, Xu G. Yu

Comprehensive Genetic Dissection of the Hemocyte Immune Response in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

Fabrizio Lombardo, Yasmeen Ghani, Fotis C. Kafatos, George K. Christophides

An Upstream Open Reading Frame Modulates Ebola Virus Polymerase Translation and Virus Replication

Reed S. Shabman, Thomas Hoenen, Allison Groseth, Omar Jabado, Jennifer M. Binning, Gaya K. Amarasinghe, Heinz Feldmann, Christopher F. Basler

Cyclosporine A Impairs Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain (Nod1)-Mediated Innate Antibacterial Renal Defenses in Mice and Human Transplant Recipients

Emilie Tourneur, Sanae Ben Mkaddem, Cécilia Chassin, Marcelle Bens, Jean-Michel Goujon, Nicolas Charles, Christophe Pellefigues, Meryem Aloulou, Alexandre Hertig, Renato C. Monteiro, Stephen E. Girardin, Dana J. Philpott, Eric Rondeau, Carole Elbim, Catherine Werts, Alain Vandewalle

Intravital Placenta Imaging Reveals Microcirculatory Dynamics Impact on Sequestration and Phagocytosis of Plasmodium-Infected Erythrocytes

Luciana Vieira de Moraes, Carlos Eduardo Tadokoro, Iván Gómez-Conde, David N. Olivieri, Carlos Penha-Gonçalves

Preclinical Therapy of Disseminated HER-2+ Ovarian and Breast Carcinomas with a HER-2-Retargeted Oncolytic Herpesvirus

Patrizia Nanni, Valentina Gatta, Laura Menotti, Carla De Giovanni, Marianna Ianzano, Arianna Palladini, Valentina Grosso, Massimiliano Dall'Ora, Stefania Croci, Giordano Nicoletti, Lorena Landuzzi, Manuela Iezzi, Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume, Pier-Luigi Lollini

Dual Short Upstream Open Reading Frames Control Translation of a Herpesviral Polycistronic mRNA

Lisa M. Kronstad, Kevin F. Brulois, Jae U. Jung, Britt A. Glaunsinger

Dissection of Ire1 Functions Reveals Stress Response Mechanisms Uniquely Evolved in Candida glabrata

Taiga Miyazaki, Hironobu Nakayama, Yohsuke Nagayoshi, Hiroshi Kakeya, Shigeru Kohno

24 Hours in the Life of HIV-1 in a T Cell Line

Pejman Mohammadi, Sébastien Desfarges, István Bartha, Beda Joos, Nadine Zangger, Miguel Muñoz, Huldrych F. Günthard, Niko Beerenwinkel, Amalio Telenti, Angela Ciuffi

Bacterial Colonization of Host Cells in the Absence of Cholesterol

Stacey D. Gilk, Diane C. Cockrell, Courtney Luterbach, Bryan Hansen, Leigh A. Knodler, J. Antonio Ibarra, Olivia Steele-Mortimer, Robert A. Heinzen

A Pathogen Type III Effector with a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Architecture

Alexander U. Singer, Sebastian Schulze, Tatiana Skarina, Xiaohui Xu, Hong Cui, Lennart Eschen-Lippold, Monique Egler, Tharan Srikumar, Brian Raught, Justin Lee, Dierk Scheel, Alexei Savchenko, Ulla Bonas

IFITM Proteins Restrict Viral Membrane Hemifusion

Kun Li, Ruben M. Markosyan, Yi-Min Zheng, Ottavia Golfetto, Brittani Bungart, Minghua Li, Shilei Ding, Yuxian He, Chen Liang, James C. Lee, Enrico Gratton, Fredric S. Cohen, Shan-Lu Liu

Memory T Cells in Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Are Directed against Three Antigenic Islands and Largely Contained in a CXCR3+CCR6+ Th1 Subset

Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Anna Gerasimova, Federico Mele, Ryan Henderson, Justine Swann, Jason A. Greenbaum, Yohan Kim, John Sidney, Eddie A. James, Randy Taplitz, Denise M. McKinney, William W. Kwok, Howard Grey, Federica Sallusto, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette

Adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to Dermal Vessels Leads to Local Vascular Damage and Purpura in a Humanized Mouse Model

Keira Melican, Paula Michea Veloso, Tiffany Martin, Patrick Bruneval, Guillaume Duménil

Point Mutations in FimH Adhesin of Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Enhance Intestinal Inflammatory Response

Nicolas Dreux, Jérémy Denizot, Margarita Martinez-Medina, Alexander Mellmann, Maria Billig, Dagmara Kisiela, Sujay Chattopadhyay, Evgeni Sokurenko, Christel Neut, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Richard Bonnet, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Nicolas Barnich

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Effector Proteins Suppress Inflammasome Activation by Interfering with Host Autophagy Signaling

Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yukiko Koizumi, Noboru Nakasone, Toshitsugu Nohara, Junya Masumoto, Toshio Kodama, Tetsuya Iida, Toshihiko Suzuki

The Hepatitis B Virus Ribonuclease H Is Sensitive to Inhibitors of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Ribonuclease H and Integrase Enzymes

John E. Tavis, Xiaohong Cheng, Yuan Hu, Michael Totten, Feng Cao, Eleftherios Michailidis, Rajeev Aurora, Marvin J. Meyers, E. Jon Jacobsen, Michael A. Parniak, Stefan G. Sarafianos

SIVagm Infection in Wild African Green Monkeys from South Africa: Epidemiology, Natural History, and Evolutionary Considerations

Dongzhu Ma, Anna Jasinska, Jan Kristoff, J. Paul Grobler, Trudy Turner, Yoon Jung, Christopher Schmitt, Kevin Raehtz, Felix Feyertag, Natalie Martinez Sosa, Viskam Wijewardana, Donald S. Burke, David L. Robertson, Russell Tracy, Ivona Pandrea, Nelson Freimer, Cristian Apetrei , The International Vervet Research Consortium

Atomic Model of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Crystallography

Xue Wang, Fengting Xu, Jiasen Liu, Bingquan Gao, Yanxin Liu, Yujia Zhai, Jun Ma, Kai Zhang, Timothy S. Baker, Klaus Schulten, Dong Zheng, Hai Pang, Fei Sun

Teleost Fish Mount Complex Clonal IgM and IgT Responses in Spleen upon Systemic Viral Infection

Rosario Castro, Luc Jouneau, Hang-Phuong Pham, Olivier Bouchez, Véronique Giudicelli, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Edwige Quillet, Abdenour Benmansour, Frédéric Cazals, Adrien Six, Simon Fillatreau, Oriol Sunyer, Pierre Boudinot

Lipid Exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and Host Cells

Jameson T. Crowley, Alvaro M. Toledo, Timothy J. LaRocca, James L. Coleman, Erwin London, Jorge L. Benach

Complement Mediated Signaling on Pulmonary CD103+ Dendritic Cells Is Critical for Their Migratory Function in Response to Influenza Infection

Matheswaran Kandasamy, Poon C. Ying, Adrian W. S. Ho, Hermi R. Sumatoh, Andreas Schlitzer, Timothy R. Hughes, David M. Kemeny, B. Paul Morgan, Florent Ginhoux, Baalasubramanian Sivasankar

Glucose Phosphorylation Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence in Mice

Joeli Marrero, Carolina Trujillo, Kyu Y. Rhee, Sabine Ehrt

Assembly of the Type II Secretion System such as Found in Vibrio cholerae Depends on the Novel Pilotin AspS

Rhys A. Dunstan, Eva Heinz, Lakshmi C. Wijeyewickrema, Robert N. Pike, Anthony W. Purcell, Timothy J. Evans, Judyta Praszkier, Roy M. Robins-Browne, Richard A. Strugnell, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Trevor Lithgow

Granzyme A Produced by γ9δ2 T Cells Induces Human Macrophages to Inhibit Growth of an Intracellular Pathogen

Charles T. Spencer, Getahun Abate, Isaac G. Sakala, Mei Xia, Steven M. Truscott, Christopher S. Eickhoff, Rebecca Linn, Azra Blazevic, Sunil S. Metkar, Guangyong Peng, Christopher J. Froelich, Daniel F. Hoft

Schmallenberg Virus Pathogenesis, Tropism and Interaction with the Innate Immune System of the Host

Mariana Varela, Esther Schnettler, Marco Caporale, Claudio Murgia, Gerald Barry, Melanie McFarlane, Eva McGregor, Ilaria M. Piras, Andrew Shaw, Catherine Lamm, Anna Janowicz, Martin Beer, Mandy Glass, Vanessa Herder, Kerstin Hahn, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Alain Kohl, Massimo Palmarini

TNFα-Mediated Liver Destruction by Kupffer Cells and Ly6Chi Monocytes during Entamoeba histolytica Infection

Elena Helk, Hannah Bernin, Thomas Ernst, Harald Ittrich, Thomas Jacobs, Joerg Heeren, Frank Tacke, Egbert Tannich, Hannelore Lotter

Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenazines that Kill Caenorhabditis elegans

Brent Cezairliyan, Nawaporn Vinayavekhin, Daniel Grenfell-Lee, Grace J. Yuen, Alan Saghatelian, Frederick M. Ausubel

The Roles of Competition and Mutation in Shaping Antigenic and Genetic Diversity in Influenza

Daniel Zinder, Trevor Bedford, Sunetra Gupta, Mercedes Pascual

Recombinant HIV Envelope Proteins Fail to Engage Germline Versions of Anti-CD4bs bNAbs

Sam Hoot, Andrew T. McGuire, Kristen W. Cohen, Roland K. Strong, Lars Hangartner, Florian Klein, Ron Diskin, Johannes F. Scheid, D. Noah Sather, Dennis R. Burton, Leonidas Stamatatos

Structural Basis for Feed-Forward Transcriptional Regulation of Membrane Lipid Homeostasis in Staphylococcus aureus

Daniela Albanesi, Georgina Reh, Marcelo E. Guerin, Francis Schaeffer, Michel Debarbouille, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Gustavo E. Schujman, Diego de Mendoza, Pedro M. Alzari

Natural Killer Cell Dependent Within-Host Competition Arises during Multiple MCMV Infection: Consequences for Viral Transmission and Evolution

Andrea R. McWhorter, Lee M. Smith, Laura L. Masters, Baca Chan, Geoffrey R. Shellam, Alec J. Redwood

IRF-3, IRF-5, and IRF-7 Coordinately Regulate the Type I IFN Response in Myeloid Dendritic Cells Downstream of MAVS Signaling

Helen M. Lazear, Alissa Lancaster, Courtney Wilkins, Mehul S. Suthar, Albert Huang, Sarah C. Vick, Lisa Clepper, Larissa Thackray, Margaret M. Brassil, Herbert W. Virgin, Janko Nikolich-Zugich, Ashlee V. Moses, Michael Gale Jr., Klaus Früh, Michael S. Diamond