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Table of Contents: February 2013

COVER

New hantaviruses found in China challenge the conventional view that they originated in rodents.

Image Credit: Yong–Zhen Zhang, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese CDC
Issue Image

Hantaviruses are the etiological agent(s) of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. Four new forms of hantavirus have been identified in bats and insectivores in China (see Guo et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003159). The study suggests hantaviruses first appeared in bats before spreading to rodents, challenging the conventional view that they originated in rodents. Picture shows the gregarious hibernating bats in a cave, in which Longquan virus was found.

Pearls

Fifty Shades of Immune Defense

Michael F. Criscitiello, Paul de Figueiredo

Research Articles

The Apoptogenic Toxin AIP56 Is a Metalloprotease A-B Toxin that Cleaves NF-κb P65

Daniela S. Silva, Liliana M. G. Pereira, Ana R. Moreira, Frederico Ferreira-da-Silva, Rui M. Brito, Tiago Q. Faria, Irene Zornetta, Cesare Montecucco, Pedro Oliveira, Jorge E. Azevedo, Pedro J. B. Pereira, Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro, Ana do Vale, Nuno M. S. dos Santos

flp-32 Ligand/Receptor Silencing Phenocopy Faster Plant Pathogenic Nematodes

Louise E. Atkinson, Michael Stevenson, Ciaran J. McCoy, Nikki J. Marks, Colin Fleming, Mostafa Zamanian, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Aaron G. Maule, Angela Mousley

Dynamic Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression during the Life Cycle of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

Archna P. Gupta, Wai Hoe Chin, Lei Zhu, Sachel Mok, Yen-Hoon Luah, Eng-How Lim, Zbynek Bozdech

Viral Escape from Neutralizing Antibodies in Early Subtype A HIV-1 Infection Drives an Increase in Autologous Neutralization Breadth

Megan K. Murphy, Ling Yue, Ruimin Pan, Saikat Boliar, Anurag Sethi, Jianhui Tian, Katja Pfafferot, Etienne Karita, Susan A. Allen, Emmanuel Cormier, Paul A. Goepfert, Persephone Borrow, James E. Robinson, S. Gnanakaran, Eric Hunter, Xiang-Peng Kong, Cynthia A. Derdeyn

Sustained Activation of Akt Elicits Mitochondrial Dysfunction to Block Plasmodium falciparum Infection in the Mosquito Host

Shirley Luckhart, Cecilia Giulivi, Anna L. Drexler, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch, Danielle Sakaguchi, Eleonora Napoli, Sarah Wong, Mark S. Price, Richard Eigenheer, Brett S. Phinney, Nazzy Pakpour, Jose E. Pietri, Kong Cheung, Martha Georgis, Michael Riehle

Poxvirus Targeting of E3 Ligase β-TrCP by Molecular Mimicry: A Mechanism to Inhibit NF-κB Activation and Promote Immune Evasion and Virulence

Daniel S. Mansur, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Leonie Unterholzner, Rebecca P. Sumner, Brian J. Ferguson, Hongwei Ren, Pavla Strnadova, Andrew G. Bowie, Geoffrey L. Smith

Macrophage-expressed IFN-β Contributes to Apoptotic Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury in Severe Influenza Virus Pneumonia

Katrin Högner, Thorsten Wolff, Stephan Pleschka, Stephanie Plog, Achim D. Gruber, Ulrich Kalinke, Hans-Dieter Walmrath, Johannes Bodner, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Peter Lewe-Schlosser, Mikhail Matrosovich, Werner Seeger, Juergen Lohmeyer, Susanne Herold

Functional Plasticity in the Type IV Secretion System of Helicobacter pylori

Roberto M. Barrozo, Cara L. Cooke, Lori M. Hansen, Anna M. Lam, Jennifer A. Gaddy, Elizabeth M. Johnson, Taryn A. Cariaga, Giovanni Suarez, Richard M. Peek Jr, Timothy L. Cover, Jay V. Solnick

The Plasmodium berghei Ca2+/H+ Exchanger, PbCAX, Is Essential for Tolerance to Environmental Ca2+ during Sexual Development

David S. Guttery, Jon K. Pittman, Karine Frénal, Benoit Poulin, Leon R. McFarlane, Ksenija Slavic, Sally P. Wheatley, Dominique Soldati-Favre, Sanjeev Krishna, Rita Tewari, Henry M. Staines

MCMV-mediated Inhibition of the Pro-apoptotic Bak Protein Is Required for Optimal In Vivo Replication

Peter Fleming, Marc Kvansakul, Valentina Voigt, Benjamin T. Kile, Ruth M. Kluck, David C. S. Huang, Mariapia A. Degli-Esposti, Christopher E. Andoniou

Cytotoxic Capacity of SIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells against Primary Autologous Targets Correlates with Immune Control in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

Daniel Mendoza, Stephen A. Migueles, Julia E. Rood, Bennett Peterson, Sarah Johnson, Nicole Doria-Rose, Douglas Schneider, Eva Rakasz, Matthew T. Trivett, Charles M. Trubey, Vicky Coalter, Claire W. Hallahan, David Watkins, Genoveffa Franchini, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Mark Connors

Modeling Host Genetic Regulation of Influenza Pathogenesis in the Collaborative Cross

Martin T. Ferris, David L. Aylor, Daniel Bottomly, Alan C. Whitmore, Lauri D. Aicher, Timothy A. Bell, Birgit Bradel-Tretheway, Janine T. Bryan, Ryan J. Buus, Lisa E. Gralinski, Bart L. Haagmans, Leonard McMillan, Darla R. Miller, Elizabeth Rosenzweig, William Valdar, Jeremy Wang, Gary A. Churchill, David W. Threadgill, Shannon K. McWeeney, Michael G. Katze, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Ralph S. Baric, Mark T. Heise

Protein Complexes and Proteolytic Activation of the Cell Wall Hydrolase RipA Regulate Septal Resolution in Mycobacteria

Michael C. Chao, Karen J. Kieser, Shoko Minami, Daniela Mavrici, Bree B. Aldridge, Sarah M. Fortune, Tom Alber, Eric J. Rubin

Structural Determinants for Activity and Specificity of the Bacterial Toxin LlpA

Maarten G. K. Ghequire, Abel Garcia-Pino, Eline K. M. Lebbe, Stijn Spaepen, Remy Loris, René De Mot

Mutualistic Co-evolution of Type III Effector Genes in Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum

Jeffrey A. Kimbrel, William J. Thomas, Yuan Jiang, Allison L. Creason, Caitlin A. Thireault, Joel L. Sachs, Jeff H. Chang

Random Codon Re-encoding Induces Stable Reduction of Replicative Fitness of Chikungunya Virus in Primate and Mosquito Cells

Antoine Nougairede, Lauriane De Fabritus, Fabien Aubry, Ernest A. Gould, Edward C. Holmes, Xavier de Lamballerie

The Abi-domain Protein Abx1 Interacts with the CovS Histidine Kinase to Control Virulence Gene Expression in Group B Streptococcus

Arnaud Firon, Asmaa Tazi, Violette Da Cunha, Sophie Brinster, Elisabeth Sauvage, Shaynoor Dramsi, Douglas T. Golenbock, Philippe Glaser, Claire Poyart, Patrick Trieu-Cuot

Intracellular Bacillary Burden Reflects a Burst Size for Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

Teresa Repasy, Jinhee Lee, Simeone Marino, Nuria Martinez, Denise E. Kirschner, Gregory Hendricks, Stephen Baker, Andrew A. Wilson, Darrell N. Kotton, Hardy Kornfeld

Using Existing Drugs as Leads for Broad Spectrum Anthelmintics Targeting Protein Kinases

Christina M. Taylor, John Martin, Ramakrishna U. Rao, Kerrie Powell, Sahar Abubucker, Makedonka Mitreva

Therapeutic Efficacy of Antibodies Lacking FcγR against Lethal Dengue Virus Infection Is Due to Neutralizing Potency and Blocking of Enhancing Antibodies

Katherine L. Williams, Soila Sukupolvi-Petty, Martina Beltramello, Syd Johnson, Federica Sallusto, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Michael S. Diamond, Eva Harris

Nox2 Modification of LDL Is Essential for Optimal Apolipoprotein B-mediated Control of agr Type III Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-sensing

Pamela R. Hall, Bradley O. Elmore, Cynthia H. Spang, Susan M. Alexander, Brett C. Manifold-Wheeler, Moriah J. Castleman, Seth M. Daly, M. Michal Peterson, Erin K. Sully, Jon K. Femling, Michael Otto, Alexander R. Horswill, Graham S. Timmins, Hattie D. Gresham

Neutrophils Exert a Suppressive Effect on Th1 Responses to Intracellular Pathogen Brucella abortus

Elías Barquero-Calvo, Anna Martirosyan, Diana Ordoñez-Rueda, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Hubert Lepidi, Bernard Malissen, Marie Malissen, Jean-Pierre Gorvel, Edgardo Moreno

Targeted and Random Mutagenesis of Ehrlichia chaffeensis for the Identification of Genes Required for In vivo Infection

Chuanmin Cheng, Arathy D. S. Nair, Vijaya V. Indukuri, Shanzhong Gong, Roderick F. Felsheim, Deborah Jaworski, Ulrike G. Munderloh, Roman R. Ganta

Comparative Analysis of Measures of Viral Reservoirs in HIV-1 Eradication Studies

Susanne Eriksson, Erin H. Graf, Viktor Dahl, Matthew C. Strain, Steven A. Yukl, Elena S. Lysenko, Ronald J. Bosch, Jun Lai, Stanley Chioma, Fatemeh Emad, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Rebecca Hoh, Frederick Hecht, Peter Hunt, Ma Somsouk, Joseph Wong, Rowena Johnston, Robert F. Siliciano, Douglas D. Richman, Una O'Doherty, Sarah Palmer, Steven G. Deeks, Janet D. Siliciano

A Phyletically Rare Gene Promotes the Niche-specific Fitness of an E. coli Pathogen during Bacteremia

Travis J. Wiles, J. Paul Norton, Sara N. Smith, Adam J. Lewis, Harry L. T. Mobley, Sherwood R. Casjens, Matthew A. Mulvey

Compatibility in the Ustilago maydis–Maize Interaction Requires Inhibition of Host Cysteine Proteases by the Fungal Effector Pit2

André N. Mueller, Sebastian Ziemann, Steffi Treitschke, Daniela Aßmann, Gunther Doehlemann

Programmed Protection of Foreign DNA from Restriction Allows Pathogenicity Island Exchange during Pneumococcal Transformation

Calum Johnston, Bernard Martin, Chantal Granadel, Patrice Polard, Jean-Pierre Claverys

P53-Mediated Rapid Induction of Apoptosis Conveys Resistance to Viral Infection in Drosophila melanogaster

Bo Liu, Susanta K. Behura, Rollie J. Clem, Anette Schneemann, James Becnel, David W. Severson, Lei Zhou

Interleukin-7 Facilitates HIV-1 Transmission to Cervico-Vaginal Tissue ex vivo

Andrea Introini, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Jean-Charles Grivel, Leonid Margolis

Human Monoclonal Antibodies Broadly Neutralizing against Influenza B Virus

Mayo Yasugi, Ritsuko Kubota-Koketsu, Akifumi Yamashita, Norihito Kawashita, Anariwa Du, Tadahiro Sasaki, Mitsuhiro Nishimura, Ryo Misaki, Motoki Kuhara, Naphatsawan Boonsathorn, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Yoshinobu Okuno, Takaaki Nakaya, Kazuyoshi Ikuta

Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elicits Inflammatory Responses that Dysregulate Placental Amino Acid Transport

Philippe Boeuf, Elizabeth H. Aitken, Upeksha Chandrasiri, Caroline Lin Lin Chua, Bernie McInerney, Leon McQuade, Michael Duffy, Malcolm Molyneux, Graham Brown, Jocelyn Glazier, Stephen J. Rogerson

Acquisition of Drug Resistance and Dependence by Prions

Anja M. Oelschlegel, Charles Weissmann

Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents

Wen-Ping Guo, Xian-Dan Lin, Wen Wang, Jun-Hua Tian, Mei-Li Cong, Hai-Lin Zhang, Miao-Ruo Wang, Run-Hong Zhou, Jian-Bo Wang, Ming-Hui Li, Jianguo Xu, Edward C. Holmes, Yong-Zhen Zhang

Structural and Functional Analysis of the CspB Protease Required for Clostridium Spore Germination

Chloe M. Adams, Brian E. Eckenroth, Emily E. Putnam, Sylvie Doublié, Aimee Shen

A Systems Biology Approach Reveals that Tissue Tropism to West Nile Virus Is Regulated by Antiviral Genes and Innate Immune Cellular Processes

Mehul S. Suthar, Margaret M. Brassil, Gabriele Blahnik, Aimee McMillan, Hilario J. Ramos, Sean C. Proll, Sarah E. Belisle, Michael G. Katze, Michael Gale Jr

Isolation of a Novel Swine Influenza Virus from Oklahoma in 2011 Which Is Distantly Related to Human Influenza C Viruses

Ben M. Hause, Mariette Ducatez, Emily A. Collin, Zhiguang Ran, Runxia Liu, Zizhang Sheng, Anibal Armien, Bryan Kaplan, Suvobrata Chakravarty, Adam D. Hoppe, Richard J. Webby, Randy R. Simonson, Feng Li