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Table of Contents: June 2013

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Compared to the important effort devoted to the genetic and molecular study of the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria parasites, relatively few studies have considered the ecological context in which mosquitoes and parasites interact. Recent studies reveal a great diversity of ways in which environmental conditions interfere with the mosquito immune response and parasite development, with far-reaching evolutionary and epidemiological implications. However, much research remains to be done. For example, in addition to feeding on blood, malaria vectors readily use natural plant nectars as sources of energy. Whether natural plant diversity affects mosquito competence for malaria parasites remains to be discovered. See Lefèvre et al.

Opinion

Introducing the Outbreak Threshold in Epidemiology

Matthew Hartfield, Samuel Alizon

Pearls

Review

Non-Genetic Determinants of Mosquito Competence for Malaria Parasites

Thierry Lefèvre, Amélie Vantaux, Kounbobr R. Dabiré, Karine Mouline, Anna Cohuet

Research Articles

Hepatitis B Virus Induces IL-23 Production in Antigen Presenting Cells and Causes Liver Damage via the IL-23/IL-17 Axis

Qinghong Wang, Jijun Zhou, Bei Zhang, Zhiqiang Tian, Jun Tang, Yanhua Zheng, Zemin Huang, Yi Tian, Zhengcai Jia, Yan Tang, Jennifer C. van Velkinburgh, Qing Mao, Xiuwu Bian, Yifang Ping, Bing Ni, Yuzhang Wu

A Novel Two-Component Signaling System Facilitates Uropathogenic Escherichia coli's Ability to Exploit Abundant Host Metabolites

Wentong Cai, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Giuseppe Dell'Anna, Bryon Nicholson, Nicolle L. Barbieri, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Yaping Feng, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan, Ganwu Li

DC8 and DC13 var Genes Associated with Severe Malaria Bind Avidly to Diverse Endothelial Cells

Marion Avril, Andrew J. Brazier, Martin Melcher, Sowmya Sampath, Joseph D. Smith

Multifunctional Double-negative T Cells in Sooty Mangabeys Mediate T-helper Functions Irrespective of SIV Infection

Vasudha Sundaravaradan, Ramsey Saleem, Luca Micci, Melanie A. Gasper, Alexandra M. Ortiz, James Else, Guido Silvestri, Mirko Paiardini, John D. Aitchison, Donald L. Sodora

Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1 Contribute to Dectin1-Dependent Phagocytosis of Candida albicans in Macrophages

Karin Strijbis, Fikadu G. Tafesse, Gregory D. Fairn, Martin D. Witte, Stephanie K. Dougan, Nicki Watson, Eric Spooner, Alexandre Esteban, Valmik K. Vyas, Gerald R. Fink, Sergio Grinstein, Hidde L. Ploegh

Novel Immunomodulators from Hard Ticks Selectively Reprogramme Human Dendritic Cell Responses

Stephen G. Preston, Juraj Majtán, Chrisoula Kouremenou, Oliwia Rysnik, Lena F. Burger, Alejandro Cabezas Cruz, Maylin Chiong Guzman, Miles A. Nunn, Guido C. Paesen, Patricia A. Nuttall, Jonathan M. Austyn

miR-182 and miR-10a Are Key Regulators of Treg Specialisation and Stability during Schistosome and Leishmania-associated Inflammation

Samir Kelada, Praveen Sethupathy, Isobel S. Okoye, Eleni Kistasis, Stephanie Czieso, Sandra D. White, David Chou, Craig Martens, Stacy M. Ricklefs, Kimmo Virtaneva, Dan E. Sturdevant, Stephen F. Porcella, Yasmine Belkaid, Thomas A. Wynn, Mark S. Wilson

CYLD Enhances Severe Listeriosis by Impairing IL-6/STAT3-Dependent Fibrin Production

Gopala Nishanth, Martina Deckert, Katharina Wex, Ramin Massoumi, Katrin Schweitzer, Michael Naumann, Dirk Schlüter

Dietary Cholesterol Modulates Pathogen Blocking by Wolbachia

Eric P. Caragata, Edwige Rancès, Lauren M. Hedges, Alexander W. Gofton, Karyn N. Johnson, Scott L. O'Neill, Elizabeth A. McGraw

Cellular RNA Binding Proteins NS1-BP and hnRNP K Regulate Influenza A Virus RNA Splicing

Pei-Ling Tsai, Ni-Ting Chiou, Sharon Kuss, Adolfo García-Sastre, Kristen W. Lynch, Beatriz M. A. Fontoura

A Type IV Pilus Mediates DNA Binding during Natural Transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Raphaël Laurenceau, Gérard Péhau-Arnaudet, Sonia Baconnais, Joseph Gault, Christian Malosse, Annick Dujeancourt, Nathalie Campo, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Eric Le Cam, Jean-Pierre Claverys, Rémi Fronzes

Evasion of Antiviral Innate Immunity by Theiler's Virus L* Protein through Direct Inhibition of RNase L

Frédéric Sorgeloos, Babal Kant Jha, Robert H. Silverman, Thomas Michiels

Deciphering the Cryptic Genome: Genome-wide Analyses of the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi Reveal Complex Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Novel Metabolites

Philipp Wiemann, Christian M. K. Sieber, Katharina W. von Bargen, Lena Studt, Eva-Maria Niehaus, Jose J. Espino, Kathleen Huß, Caroline B. Michielse, Sabine Albermann, Dominik Wagner, Sonja V. Bergner, Lanelle R. Connolly, Andreas Fischer, Gunter Reuter, Karin Kleigrewe, Till Bald, Brenda D. Wingfield, Ron Ophir, Stanley Freeman, Michael Hippler, Kristina M. Smith, Daren W. Brown, Robert H. Proctor, Martin Münsterkötter, Michael Freitag, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski

T Cell-Derived IL-10 Determines Leishmaniasis Disease Outcome and Is Suppressed by a Dendritic Cell Based Vaccine

Tobias Schwarz, Katharina A. Remer, Wiebke Nahrendorf, Anita Masic, Lisa Siewe, Werner Müller, Axel Roers, Heidrun Moll

Host Factor SAMHD1 Restricts DNA Viruses in Non-Dividing Myeloid Cells

Joseph A. Hollenbaugh, Peter Gee, Jonathon Baker, Michele B. Daly, Sarah M. Amie, Jessica Tate, Natsumi Kasai, Yuka Kanemura, Dong-Hyun Kim, Brian M. Ward, Yoshio Koyanagi, Baek Kim

Rickettsia typhi Possesses Phospholipase A2 Enzymes that Are Involved in Infection of Host Cells

M. Sayeedur Rahman, Joseph J. Gillespie, Simran Jeet Kaur, Khandra T. Sears, Shane M. Ceraul, Magda Beier-Sexton, Abdu F. Azad

HIV-1 Vaccine-Induced T-Cell Reponses Cluster in Epitope Hotspots that Differ from Those Induced in Natural Infection with HIV-1

Tomer Hertz, Hasan Ahmed, David P. Friedrich, Danilo R. Casimiro, Steven G. Self, Lawrence Corey, M. Juliana McElrath, Susan Buchbinder, Helen Horton, Nicole Frahm, Michael N. Robertson, Barney S. Graham, Peter Gilbert

Adhesins and Host Serum Factors Drive Yop Translocation by Yersinia into Professional Phagocytes during Animal Infection

Francisco J. Maldonado-Arocho, Carlos Green, Michael L. Fisher, Michelle K. Paczosa, Joan Mecsas

Galectin-9 and IL-21 Mediate Cross-regulation between Th17 and Treg Cells during Acute Hepatitis C

Hassen Kared, Thomas Fabre, Nathalie Bédard, Julie Bruneau, Naglaa H. Shoukry

Novel Polyomaviruses of Nonhuman Primates: Genetic and Serological Predictors for the Existence of Multiple Unknown Polyomaviruses within the Human Population

Nelly Scuda, Nadege Freda Madinda, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Edgard Valerie Adjogoua, Diana Wevers, Jörg Hofmann, Kenneth N. Cameron, Siv Aina J. Leendertz, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Martha Robbins, Christophe Boesch, Michael A. Jarvis, Ugo Moens, Lawrence Mugisha, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H. Leendertz, Bernhard Ehlers

Single Cell Analysis of Lymph Node Tissue from HIV-1 Infected Patients Reveals that the Majority of CD4+ T-cells Contain One HIV-1 DNA Molecule

Lina Josefsson, Sarah Palmer, Nuno R. Faria, Philippe Lemey, Joseph Casazza, David Ambrozak, Mary Kearney, Wei Shao, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, Michael Sneller, John Mellors, John M. Coffin, Frank Maldarelli

Evidence for Novel Hepaciviruses in Rodents

Jan Felix Drexler, Victor Max Corman, Marcel Alexander Müller, Alexander N. Lukashev, Anatoly Gmyl, Bruno Coutard, Alexander Adam, Daniel Ritz, Lonneke M. Leijten, Debby van Riel, Rene Kallies, Stefan M. Klose, Florian Gloza-Rausch, Tabea Binger, Augustina Annan, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Samuel Oppong, Mathieu Bourgarel, Daniel Rupp, Bernd Hoffmann, Mathias Schlegel, Beate M. Kümmerer, Detlev H. Krüger, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Alvaro Aguilar Setién, Veronika M. Cottontail, Thiravat Hemachudha, Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Klaus Osterrieder, Ralf Bartenschlager, Sonja Matthee, Martin Beer, Thijs Kuiken, Chantal Reusken, Eric M. Leroy, Rainer G. Ulrich, Christian Drosten

Heterosubtypic Immunity to Influenza A Virus Infections in Mallards May Explain Existence of Multiple Virus Subtypes

Neus Latorre-Margalef, Vladimir Grosbois, John Wahlgren, Vincent J. Munster, Conny Tolf, Ron A. M. Fouchier, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Björn Olsen, Jonas Waldenström

Nitric Oxide Synthase Dysfunction Contributes to Impaired Cerebroarteriolar Reactivity in Experimental Cerebral Malaria

Peng Kai Ong, Benoît Melchior, Yuri C. Martins, Anthony Hofer, Pamela Orjuela-Sánchez, Pedro Cabrales, Graziela M. Zanini, John A. Frangos, Leonardo J. M. Carvalho

An Extracellular Subtilase Switch for Immune Priming in Arabidopsis

Vicente Ramírez, Ana López, Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Ma José Gil, Pablo Vera

Location of the CD8 T Cell Epitope within the Antigenic Precursor Determines Immunogenicity and Protection against the Toxoplasma gondii Parasite

Virginie Feliu, Virginie Vasseur, Harshita S. Grover, H. Hamlet Chu, Mark J. Brown, Jeremy Wang, Jon P. Boyle, Ellen A. Robey, Nilabh Shastri, Nicolas Blanchard

The Th17/Treg Ratio, IL-1RA and sCD14 Levels in Primary HIV Infection Predict the T-cell Activation Set Point in the Absence of Systemic Microbial Translocation

Mathieu F. Chevalier, Gaël Petitjean, Catherine Dunyach-Rémy, Céline Didier, Pierre-Marie Girard, Maria Elena Manea, Pauline Campa, Laurence Meyer, Christine Rouzioux, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Daniel Scott-Algara, Laurence Weiss

CD4+ T Cell-derived IL-10 Promotes Brucella abortus Persistence via Modulation of Macrophage Function

Mariana N. Xavier, Maria G. Winter, Alanna M. Spees, Kim Nguyen, Vidya L. Atluri, Teane M. A. Silva, Andreas J. Bäumler, Werner Müller, Renato L. Santos, Renée M. Tsolis

Dissection of Antibody Specificities Induced by Yellow Fever Vaccination

Oksana Vratskikh, Karin Stiasny, Jürgen Zlatkovic, Georgios Tsouchnikas, Johanna Jarmer, Urs Karrer, Michael Roggendorf, Hedwig Roggendorf, Regina Allwinn, Franz X. Heinz

Extreme Genetic Fragility of the HIV-1 Capsid

Suzannah J. Rihn, Sam J. Wilson, Nick J. Loman, Mudathir Alim, Saskia E. Bakker, David Bhella, Robert J. Gifford, Frazer J. Rixon, Paul D. Bieniasz

Bacterial Cytolysin during Meningitis Disrupts the Regulation of Glutamate in the Brain, Leading to Synaptic Damage

Carolin Wippel, Jana Maurer, Christina Förtsch, Sabrina Hupp, Alexandra Bohl, Jiangtao Ma, Timothy J. Mitchell, Stephanie Bunkowski, Wolfgang Brück, Roland Nau, Asparouh I. Iliev

Combination of DNA Prime – Adenovirus Boost Immunization with Entecavir Elicits Sustained Control of Chronic Hepatitis B in the Woodchuck Model

Anna D. Kosinska, Ejuan Zhang, Lena Johrden, Jia Liu, Pia L. Seiz, Xiaoyong Zhang, Zhiyong Ma, Thekla Kemper, Melanie Fiedler, Dieter Glebe, Oliver Wildner, Ulf Dittmer, Mengji Lu, Michael Roggendorf

The Escherichia coli Phosphotyrosine Proteome Relates to Core Pathways and Virulence

Anne-Marie Hansen, Raghothama Chaerkady, Jyoti Sharma, J. Javier Díaz-Mejía, Nidhi Tyagi, Santosh Renuse, Harrys K. C. Jacob, Sneha M. Pinto, Nandini A. Sahasrabuddhe, Min-Sik Kim, Bernard Delanghe, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Andrew Emili, James B. Kaper, Akhilesh Pandey

Viral Retasking of hBre1/RNF20 to Recruit hPaf1 for Transcriptional Activation

Gregory J. Fonseca, Michael J. Cohen, Anthony C. Nichols, John W. Barrett, Joe S. Mymryk

IRG and GBP Host Resistance Factors Target Aberrant, “Non-self” Vacuoles Characterized by the Missing of “Self” IRGM Proteins

Arun K. Haldar, Hector A. Saka, Anthony S. Piro, Joe Dan Dunn, Stanley C. Henry, Gregory A. Taylor, Eva M. Frickel, Raphael H. Valdivia, Jörn Coers

Genome-wide RNAi Screen Reveals a New Role of a WNT/CTNNB1 Signaling Pathway as Negative Regulator of Virus-induced Innate Immune Responses

Martin Baril, Salwa Es-Saad, Laurent Chatel-Chaix, Karin Fink, Tram Pham, Valérie-Ann Raymond, Karine Audette, Anne-Sophie Guenier, Jean Duchaine, Marc Servant, Marc Bilodeau, Éric Cohen, Nathalie Grandvaux, Daniel Lamarre

Glycan Masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for Probing Protein Binding Function and Vaccine Development

Sowmya Sampath, Chris Carrico, Joel Janes, Sairam Gurumoorthy, Claire Gibson, Martin Melcher, Chetan E. Chitnis, Ruobing Wang, William R. Schief, Joseph D. Smith

Influenza Virus Reassortment Occurs with High Frequency in the Absence of Segment Mismatch

Nicolle Marshall, Lalita Priyamvada, Zachary Ende, John Steel, Anice C. Lowen

Identification of a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from Human Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Arginine-Rich Domain (ARD)

Heng-Li Chen, Pei-Yi Su, Ya-Shu Chang, Szu-Yao Wu, You-Di Liao, Hui-Ming Yu, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale, Kaichih Chang, Chiaho Shih

An Apicoplast Localized Ubiquitylation System Is Required for the Import of Nuclear-encoded Plastid Proteins

Swati Agrawal, Duk-Won D. Chung, Nadia Ponts, Giel G. van Dooren, Jacques Prudhomme, Carrie F. Brooks, Elisadra M. Rodrigues, John C. Tan, Michael T. Ferdig, Boris Striepen, Karine G. Le Roch

Extreme Resistance as a Host Counter-counter Defense against Viral Suppression of RNA Silencing

Raphaël Sansregret, Vanessa Dufour, Mathieu Langlois, Fouad Daayf, Patrice Dunoyer, Olivier Voinnet, Kamal Bouarab

Transcriptome Analyses of Inhibitor-treated Schistosome Females Provide Evidence for Cooperating Src-kinase and TGFβ Receptor Pathways Controlling Mitosis and Eggshell Formation

Christin Buro, Katia C. Oliveira, Zhigang Lu, Silke Leutner, Svenja Beckmann, Colette Dissous, Katia Cailliau, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Christoph G. Grevelding

Global Expression Profiling of Transcription Factor Genes Provides New Insights into Pathogenicity and Stress Responses in the Rice Blast Fungus

Sook-Young Park, Jaeyoung Choi, Se-Eun Lim, Gir-Won Lee, Jongsun Park, Yang Kim, Sunghyung Kong, Se Ryun Kim, Hee-Sool Rho, Junhyun Jeon, Myung-Hwan Chi, Soonok Kim, Chang Hyun Khang, Seogchan Kang, Yong-Hwan Lee

Crosstalk between the Circadian Clock and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis

Chong Zhang, Qiguang Xie, Ryan G. Anderson, Gina Ng, Nicholas C. Seitz, Thomas Peterson, C. Robertson McClung, John M. McDowell, Dongdong Kong, June M. Kwak, Hua Lu

Caspase-11 Activation in Response to Bacterial Secretion Systems that Access the Host Cytosol

Cierra N. Casson, Alan M. Copenhaver, Erin E. Zwack, Hieu T. Nguyen, Till Strowig, Bahar Javdan, William P. Bradley, Thomas C. Fung, Richard A. Flavell, Igor E. Brodsky, Sunny Shin

Increased Long Chain acyl-Coa Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Import Is Linked to Membrane Synthesis for Development of Picornavirus Replication Organelles

Jules A. Nchoutmboube, Ekaterina G. Viktorova, Alison J. Scott, Lauren A. Ford, Zhengtong Pei, Paul A. Watkins, Robert K. Ernst, George A. Belov

The Stable Association of Virion with the Triple-gene-block Protein 3-based Complex of Bamboo mosaic virus

Yuan-Lin Chou, Yi-Jing Hung, Yang-Hao Tseng, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Jun-Yi Yang, Chiung-Hua Wung, Na-Sheng Lin, Menghsiao Meng, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ban-Yang Chang

Vitamin D Induces Interleukin-1β Expression: Paracrine Macrophage Epithelial Signaling Controls M. tuberculosis Infection

Mark Verway, Manuella Bouttier, Tian-Tian Wang, Marilyn Carrier, Mario Calderon, Beum-Soo An, Emmanuelle Devemy, Fiona McIntosh, Maziar Divangahi, Marcel A. Behr, John H. White

Cryotomography of Budding Influenza A Virus Reveals Filaments with Diverse Morphologies that Mostly Do Not Bear a Genome at Their Distal End

Swetha Vijayakrishnan, Colin Loney, David Jackson, Worawit Suphamungmee, Frazer J. Rixon, David Bhella