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Table of Contents: October 2010

COVER

Polarized T cells infected with HIV-1 encoding YFP-tagged Gag protein (shown in green).

Image Credit: G. Nicholas Llewellyn, University of Michigan Medical School
Issue Image

HIV-1 Gag is the major structural protein that forms virus particles. In a majority of polarized T cells, Gag-YFP concentrates to a rear-end protrusion known as the uropod. As these uropods participate in cell-cell contacts with other cells, Gag accumulation to and virus assembly at uropods may facilitate virus spread. Consistent with this model, uropod components are observed at the virological synapses. Gag localization to uropods are driven by higher-order Gag multimerization dependent on the NC domain (see Llewellyn et al., doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001167).

Opinion

Pearls

Antimicrobial Peptides: Primeval Molecules or Future Drugs?

Brian M. Peters, Mark E. Shirtliff, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

Review

Host Genetics and HIV-1: The Final Phase?

Jacques Fellay, Kevin V. Shianna, Amalio Telenti, David B. Goldstein

Research Articles

Large-Scale Field Application of RNAi Technology Reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Wayne Hunter, James Ellis, Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Jerry Hayes, Dave Westervelt, Eitan Glick, Michael Williams, Ilan Sela, Eyal Maori, Jeffery Pettis, Diana Cox-Foster, Nitzan Paldi

Retention and Loss of RNA Interference Pathways in Trypanosomatid Protozoans

Lon-Fye Lye, Katherine Owens, Huafang Shi, Silvane M. F. Murta, Ana Carolina Vieira, Salvatore J. Turco, Christian Tschudi, Elisabetta Ullu, Stephen M. Beverley

Nuclear Export and Import of Human Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Protein and Particles

Hung-Cheng Li, Er-Yi Huang, Pei-Yi Su, Szu-Yao Wu, Ching-Chun Yang, Young-Sun Lin, Wen-Chang Chang, Chiaho Shih

Fidelity Variants of RNA Dependent RNA Polymerases Uncover an Indirect, Mutagenic Activity of Amiloride Compounds

Laura I. Levi, Nina F. Gnädig, Stéphanie Beaucourt, Malia J. McPherson, Bruno Baron, Jamie J. Arnold, Marco Vignuzzi

The Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus from the Middle East to the World

Pierre Lefeuvre, Darren P. Martin, Gordon Harkins, Philippe Lemey, Alistair J. A. Gray, Sandra Meredith, Francisco Lakay, Adérito Monjane, Jean-Michel Lett, Arvind Varsani, Jahangir Heydarnejad

Identification and Genome-Wide Prediction of DNA Binding Specificities for the ApiAP2 Family of Regulators from the Malaria Parasite

Tracey L. Campbell, Erandi K. De Silva, Kellen L. Olszewski, Olivier Elemento, Manuel Llinás

Phylodynamics and Human-Mediated Dispersal of a Zoonotic Virus

Chiraz Talbi, Philippe Lemey, Marc A. Suchard, Elbia Abdelatif, Mehdi Elharrak, Nourlil Jalal, Abdellah Faouzi, Juan E. Echevarría, Sonia Vazquez Morón, Andrew Rambaut, Nicholas Campiz, Andrew J. Tatem, Edward C. Holmes, Hervé Bourhy

Inhibition of Nipah Virus Infection In Vivo: Targeting an Early Stage of Paramyxovirus Fusion Activation during Viral Entry

Matteo Porotto, Barry Rockx, Christine C. Yokoyama, Aparna Talekar, Ilaria DeVito, Laura M. Palermo, Jie Liu, Riccardo Cortese, Min Lu, Heinz Feldmann, Antonello Pessi, Anne Moscona

Strain-Specific Differences in the Genetic Control of Two Closely Related Mycobacteria

Tania Di Pietrantonio, Carmen Hernandez, Manon Girard, Annie Verville, Marianna Orlova, Adam Belley, Marcel A. Behr, J. Concepción Loredo-Osti, Erwin Schurr

Mycobacterium leprae Phenolglycolipid-1 Expressed by Engineered M. bovis BCG Modulates Early Interaction with Human Phagocytes

Guillaume Tabouret, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker, Caroline Demangel, Wladimir Malaga, Patricia Constant, Aurélie Ray, Nadine Honoré, Nana Fatimath Bello, Esther Perez, Mamadou Daffé, Christophe Guilhot

Early Production of IL-22 but Not IL-17 by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to live Borrelia burgdorferi: The Role of Monocytes and Interleukin-1

Malte Bachmann, Katharina Horn, Ina Rudloff, Itamar Goren, Martin Holdener, Urs Christen, Nicole Darsow, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld, Ulrike Koehl, Peter Kind, Josef Pfeilschifter, Peter Kraiczy, Heiko Mühl

Variations in the Hemagglutinin of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Virus: Potential for Strains with Altered Virulence Phenotype?

Jianqiang Ye, Erin M. Sorrell, Yibin Cai, Hongxia Shao, Kemin Xu, Lindomar Pena, Danielle Hickman, Haichen Song, Matthew Angel, Rafael A. Medina, Balaji Manicassamy, Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, Daniel R. Perez

Leishmania-Induced Inactivation of the Macrophage Transcription Factor AP-1 Is Mediated by the Parasite Metalloprotease GP63

Irazú Contreras, María Adelaida Gómez, Oliver Nguyen, Marina T. Shio, Robert W. McMaster, Martin Olivier

MHC Class I Bound to an Immunodominant Theileria parva Epitope Demonstrates Unconventional Presentation to T Cell Receptors

Isabel K. Macdonald, Maria Harkiolaki, Lawrence Hunt, Timothy Connelley, A. Victoria Carroll, Niall D. MacHugh, Simon P. Graham, E. Yvonne Jones, W. Ivan Morrison, Darren R. Flower, Shirley A. Ellis

Cytomegalovirus microRNAs Facilitate Persistent Virus Infection in Salivary Glands

Lars Dölken, Astrid Krmpotic, Sheila Kothe, Lee Tuddenham, Mélanie Tanguy, Lisa Marcinowski, Zsolt Ruzsics, Naama Elefant, Yael Altuvia, Hanah Margalit, Ulrich H. Koszinowski, Stipan Jonjic, Sébastien Pfeffer

Controlling Cellular P-TEFb Activity by the HIV-1 Transcriptional Transactivator Tat

Lisa Muniz, Sylvain Egloff, Bettina Ughy, Beáta E. Jády, Tamás Kiss

Direct Visualization of Peptide/MHC Complexes at the Surface and in the Intracellular Compartments of Cells Infected In Vivo by Leishmania major

Eric Muraille, Pierre Gounon, Julie Cazareth, Johan Hoebeke, Christoph Lippuner, Ana Davalos-Misslitz, Toni Aebischer, Sylviane Muller, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, Evelyne Mougneau

The SR-BI Partner PDZK1 Facilitates Hepatitis C Virus Entry

Nicholas S. Eyre, Heidi E. Drummer, Michael R. Beard

Dengue Virus Ensures Its Fusion in Late Endosomes Using Compartment-Specific Lipids

Elena Zaitseva, Sung-Tae Yang, Kamran Melikov, Sergei Pourmal, Leonid V. Chernomordik

Concerted Action of Two Formins in Gliding Motility and Host Cell Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii

Wassim Daher, Fabienne Plattner, Marie-France Carlier, Dominique Soldati-Favre

Staphylococcus epidermidis Strategies to Avoid Killing by Human Neutrophils

Gordon Y. C. Cheung, Kevin Rigby, Rong Wang, Shu Y. Queck, Kevin R. Braughton, Adeline R. Whitney, Martin Teintze, Frank R. DeLeo, Michael Otto

Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death

Stephanie Haensch, Raffaella Bianucci, Michel Signoli, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Michael Schultz, Sacha Kacki, Marco Vermunt, Darlene A. Weston, Derek Hurst, Mark Achtman, Elisabeth Carniel, Barbara Bramanti

Release of Intracellular Calcium Stores Facilitates Coxsackievirus Entry into Polarized Endothelial Cells

Rebecca A. Bozym, Stefanie A. Morosky, Kwang S. Kim, Sara Cherry, Carolyn B. Coyne

Transforming Growth Factor-β: Activation by Neuraminidase and Role in Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Pathogenesis

Christina M. Carlson, Elizabeth A. Turpin, Lindsey A. Moser, Kevin B. O'Brien, Troy D. Cline, Jeremy C. Jones, Terrence M. Tumpey, Jacqueline M. Katz, Laura A. Kelley, Jack Gauldie, Stacey Schultz-Cherry

Autoimmunity in Arabidopsis acd11 Is Mediated by Epigenetic Regulation of an Immune Receptor

Kristoffer Palma, Stephan Thorgrimsen, Frederikke Gro Malinovsky, Berthe Katrine Fiil, H. Bjørn Nielsen, Peter Brodersen, Daniel Hofius, Morten Petersen, John Mundy

Calcineurin Inhibition at the Clinical Phase of Prion Disease Reduces Neurodegeneration, Improves Behavioral Alterations and Increases Animal Survival

Abhisek Mukherjee, Diego Morales-Scheihing, Dennisse Gonzalez-Romero, Kristi Green, Giulio Taglialatela, Claudio Soto

Viral Replication Rate Regulates Clinical Outcome and CD8 T Cell Responses during Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Mice

Yasuko Hatta, Karen Hershberger, Kyoko Shinya, Sean C. Proll, Richard R. Dubielzig, Masato Hatta, Michael G. Katze, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, M. Suresh

Gene Annotation and Drug Target Discovery in Candida albicans with a Tagged Transposon Mutant Collection

Julia Oh, Eula Fung, Ulrich Schlecht, Ronald W. Davis, Guri Giaever, Robert P. St. Onge, Adam Deutschbauer, Corey Nislow

Parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice Induces a DNA Damage Response That Facilitates Viral Replication

Richard O. Adeyemi, Sebastien Landry, Meredith E. Davis, Matthew D. Weitzman, David J. Pintel

Requirements for Receptor Engagement during Infection by Adenovirus Complexed with Blood Coagulation Factor X

Angela C. Bradshaw, Alan L. Parker, Margaret R. Duffy, Lynda Coughlan, Nico van Rooijen, Veli-Matti Kähäri, Stuart A. Nicklin, Andrew H. Baker

Wolbachia Stimulates Immune Gene Expression and Inhibits Plasmodium Development in Anopheles gambiae

Zakaria Kambris, Andrew M. Blagborough, Sofia B. Pinto, Marcus S. C. Blagrove, H. Charles J. Godfray, Robert E. Sinden, Steven P. Sinkins