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Table of Contents: September 2011

COVER

Yeast and filamentous forms of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis.

Image Credit: Alberto Elías-Villalobos, Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo, Universidad Pablo de Olavide-CSIC, Sevilla, Spain
Issue Image

U. maydis is a basidiomycete dimorphic phytopathogen that grows as yeast-like cells on rich media cultures and is able to grow in a polarized manner under specific conditions such as charcoal-containing media or on the maize surface. This morphological transition is essential for its virulence capacity, as occurs in many other fungal pathogens. The general transcriptional repressor Tup1 is required for this process. The image shows a mixture of wild-type YFP labeled cells (yellow, filamentous) co-inoculated with a tup1 CFP mutant strain (cyan, yeast) on charcoal-containing media (see Elías-Villalobos et al., doi: 10.1371/journal. ppat.1002235).

Pearls

Review

Plague and Climate: Scales Matter

Tamara Ben Ari, Simon Neerinckx, Kenneth L. Gage, Katharina Kreppel, Anne Laudisoit, Herwig Leirs, Nils Chr. Stenseth

Research Articles

Recurrent Signature Patterns in HIV-1 B Clade Envelope Glycoproteins Associated with either Early or Chronic Infections

S. Gnanakaran, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Marcus Daniels, Brandon F. Keele, Peter T. Hraber, Alan S. Lapedes, Tongye Shen, Brian Gaschen, Mohan Krishnamoorthy, Hui Li, Julie M. Decker, Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez, Shuyi Wang, Chunlai Jiang, Feng Gao, Ronald Swanstrom, Jeffrey A. Anderson, Li-Hua Ping, Myron S. Cohen, Martin Markowitz, Paul A. Goepfert, Michael S. Saag, Joseph J. Eron, Charles B. Hicks, William A. Blattner, Georgia D. Tomaras, Mohammed Asmal, Norman L. Letvin, Peter B. Gilbert, Allan C. DeCamp, Craig A. Magaret, William R. Schief, Yih-En Andrew Ban, Ming Zhang, Kelly A. Soderberg, Joseph G. Sodroski, Barton F. Haynes, George M. Shaw, Beatrice H. Hahn, Bette Korber

Quantitative in vivo Analyses Reveal Calcium-dependent Phosphorylation Sites and Identifies a Novel Component of the Toxoplasma Invasion Motor Complex

Thomas Nebl, Judith Helena Prieto, Eugene Kapp, Brian J. Smith, Melanie J. Williams, John R. Yates 3rd, Alan F. Cowman, Christopher J. Tonkin

High-Resolution Phenotypic Profiling Defines Genes Essential for Mycobacterial Growth and Cholesterol Catabolism

Jennifer E. Griffin, Jeffrey D. Gawronski, Michael A. DeJesus, Thomas R. Ioerger, Brian J. Akerley, Christopher M. Sassetti

The Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncogene Represses a Cell Adhesion Pathway and Disrupts Focal Adhesion through Degradation of TAp63β upon Transformation

Youcef Ben Khalifa, Sébastien Teissier, Meng-Kwang Marcus Tan, Quang Tien Phan, Mathieu Daynac, Wei Qi Wong, Françoise Thierry

Monalysin, a Novel ß-Pore-Forming Toxin from the Drosophila Pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila, Contributes to Host Intestinal Damage and Lethality

Onya Opota, Isabelle Vallet-Gély, Renaud Vincentelli, Christine Kellenberger, Ioan Iacovache, Manuel Rodrigo Gonzalez, Alain Roussel, Françoise-Gisou van der Goot, Bruno Lemaitre

Evaluating the Sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Biotin Deprivation Using Regulated Gene Expression

Sae Woong Park, Marcus Klotzsche, Daniel J. Wilson, Helena I. Boshoff, Hyungjin Eoh, Ujjini Manjunatha, Antje Blumenthal, Kyu Rhee, Clifton E. Barry III, Courtney C. Aldrich, Sabine Ehrt, Dirk Schnappinger

Tri6 Is a Global Transcription Regulator in the Phytopathogen Fusarium graminearum

Charles G. Nasmith, Sean Walkowiak, Li Wang, Winnie W. Y. Leung, Yunchen Gong, Anne Johnston, Linda J. Harris, David S. Guttman, Rajagopal Subramaniam

Strain Specific Resistance to Murine Scrapie Associated with a Naturally Occurring Human Prion Protein Polymorphism at Residue 171

James F. Striebel, Brent Race, Kimberly D. Meade-White, Rachel LaCasse, Bruce Chesebro

Multidrug Resistant 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Clinical Isolate with a Neuraminidase I223R Mutation Retains Its Virulence and Transmissibility in Ferrets

Erhard van der Vries, Edwin J. Veldhuis Kroeze, Koert J. Stittelaar, Martin Linster, Anne Van der Linden, Eefje J. A. Schrauwen, Lonneke M. Leijten, Geert van Amerongen, Martin Schutten, Thijs Kuiken, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Ron A. M. Fouchier, Charles A. B. Boucher, Sander Herfst

Structure of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Bound to the Human Receptor Nectin-1

Paolo Di Giovine, Ethan C. Settembre, Arjun K. Bhargava, Micah A. Luftig, Huan Lou, Gary H. Cohen, Roselyn J. Eisenberg, Claude Krummenacher, Andrea Carfi

Rapid and Efficient Clearance of Blood-borne Virus by Liver Sinusoidal Endothelium

Latha P. Ganesan, Sudhasri Mohanty, Jonghan Kim, K. Reed Clark, John M. Robinson, Clark L. Anderson

Targeting of a Chlamydial Protease Impedes Intracellular Bacterial Growth

Jan G. Christian, Julia Heymann, Stefan A. Paschen, Juliane Vier, Linda Schauenburg, Jan Rupp, Thomas F. Meyer, Georg Häcker, Dagmar Heuer

APOBEC3A Is a Specific Inhibitor of the Early Phases of HIV-1 Infection in Myeloid Cells

Gregory Berger, Stéphanie Durand, Guillaume Fargier, Xuan-Nhi Nguyen, Stéphanie Cordeil, Serge Bouaziz, Delphine Muriaux, Jean-Luc Darlix, Andrea Cimarelli

Structure of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus N0-P Complex

Cédric Leyrat, Filip Yabukarski, Nicolas Tarbouriech, Euripedes A. Ribeiro Jr., Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Martin Blackledge, Rob W. H. Ruigrok, Marc Jamin

Robust Antigen Specific Th17 T Cell Response to Group A Streptococcus Is Dependent on IL-6 and Intranasal Route of Infection

Thamotharampillai Dileepan, Jonathan L. Linehan, James J. Moon, Marion Pepper, Marc K. Jenkins, Patrick P. Cleary

Secretion of Genome-Free Hepatitis B Virus – Single Strand Blocking Model for Virion Morphogenesis of Para-retrovirus

Xiaojun Ning, David Nguyen, Laura Mentzer, Christina Adams, Hyunwook Lee, Robert Ashley, Susan Hafenstein, Jianming Hu

Development of a Transformation System for Chlamydia trachomatis: Restoration of Glycogen Biosynthesis by Acquisition of a Plasmid Shuttle Vector

Yibing Wang, Simona Kahane, Lesley T. Cutcliffe, Rachel J. Skilton, Paul R. Lambden, Ian N. Clarke

Host Phylogeny Determines Viral Persistence and Replication in Novel Hosts

Ben Longdon, Jarrod D. Hadfield, Claire L. Webster, Darren J. Obbard, Francis M. Jiggins

A Trigger Enzyme in Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Impact of the Glycerophosphodiesterase GlpQ on Virulence and Gene Expression

Sebastian R. Schmidl, Andreas Otto, Maria Lluch-Senar, Jaume Piñol, Julia Busse, Dörte Becher, Jörg Stülke

Expression of the RAE-1 Family of Stimulatory NK-Cell Ligands Requires Activation of the PI3K Pathway during Viral Infection and Transformation

Maria Tokuyama, Clarisse Lorin, Frederic Delebecque, Heiyoun Jung, David H. Raulet, Laurent Coscoy

Exposure to the Viral By-Product dsRNA or Coxsackievirus B5 Triggers Pancreatic Beta Cell Apoptosis via a Bim / Mcl-1 Imbalance

Maikel L. Colli, Tatiane C. Nogueira, Florent Allagnat, Daniel A. Cunha, Esteban N. Gurzov, Alessandra K. Cardozo, Merja Roivainen, Anne Op de beeck, Decio L. Eizirik

Unconventional Repertoire Profile Is Imprinted during Acute Chikungunya Infection for Natural Killer Cells Polarization toward Cytotoxicity

Caroline Petitdemange, Pierre Becquart, Nadia Wauquier, Vivien Béziat, Patrice Debré, Eric M. Leroy, Vincent Vieillard

Complex Recombination Patterns Arising during Geminivirus Coinfections Preserve and Demarcate Biologically Important Intra-Genome Interaction Networks

Darren P. Martin, Pierre Lefeuvre, Arvind Varsani, Murielle Hoareau, Jean-Yves Semegni, Betty Dijoux, Claire Vincent, Bernard Reynaud, Jean-Michel Lett

Non-Lytic, Actin-Based Exit of Intracellular Parasites from C. elegans Intestinal Cells

Kathleen A. Estes, Suzannah C. Szumowski, Emily R. Troemel

A Viral Ubiquitin Ligase Has Substrate Preferential SUMO Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase Activity that Counteracts Intrinsic Antiviral Defence

Chris Boutell, Delphine Cuchet-Lourenço, Emilia Vanni, Anne Orr, Mandy Glass, Steven McFarlane, Roger D. Everett

Analysis of Behavior and Trafficking of Dendritic Cells within the Brain during Toxoplasmic Encephalitis

Beena John, Brendon Ricart, Elia D. Tait Wojno, Tajie H. Harris, Louise M. Randall, David A. Christian, Beth Gregg, Daniel Manzoni De Almeida, Wolfgang Weninger, Daniel A. Hammer, Christopher A. Hunter

HSV Infection Induces Production of ROS, which Potentiate Signaling from Pattern Recognition Receptors: Role for S-glutathionylation of TRAF3 and 6

Regina Gonzalez-Dosal, Kristy A. Horan, Stine H. Rahbek, Hidenori Ichijo, Zhijian J. Chen, John J. Mieyal, Rune Hartmann, Søren R. Paludan

Step-Wise Loss of Bacterial Flagellar Torsion Confers Progressive Phagocytic Evasion

Rustin R. Lovewell, Ryan M. Collins, Julie L. Acker, George A. O'Toole, Matthew J. Wargo, Brent Berwin

Nrf2, a PPARγ Alternative Pathway to Promote CD36 Expression on Inflammatory Macrophages: Implication for Malaria

David Olagnier, Rose-Anne Lavergne, Etienne Meunier, Lise Lefèvre, Christophe Dardenne, Agnès Aubouy, Françoise Benoit-Vical, Bernhard Ryffel, Agnès Coste, Antoine Berry, Bernard Pipy

Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibition Alters Gene Expression and Improves Isoniazid – Mediated Clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Rabbit Lungs

Selvakumar Subbian, Liana Tsenova, Paul O'Brien, Guibin Yang, Mi-Sun Koo, Blas Peixoto, Dorothy Fallows, Veronique Dartois, George Muller, Gilla Kaplan

Disruption of TLR3 Signaling Due to Cleavage of TRIF by the Hepatitis A Virus Protease-Polymerase Processing Intermediate, 3CD

Lin Qu, Zongdi Feng, Daisuke Yamane, Yuqiong Liang, Robert E. Lanford, Kui Li, Stanley M. Lemon

Discovery of the First Insect Nidovirus, a Missing Evolutionary Link in the Emergence of the Largest RNA Virus Genomes

Phan Thi Nga, Maria del Carmen Parquet, Chris Lauber, Manmohan Parida, Takeshi Nabeshima, Fuxun Yu, Nguyen Thanh Thuy, Shingo Inoue, Takashi Ito, Kenta Okamoto, Akitoyo Ichinose, Eric J. Snijder, Kouichi Morita, Alexander E. Gorbalenya

Structural and Functional Studies on the Interaction of GspC and GspD in the Type II Secretion System

Konstantin V. Korotkov, Tanya L. Johnson, Michael G. Jobling, Jonathan Pruneda, Els Pardon, Annie Héroux, Stewart Turley, Jan Steyaert, Randall K. Holmes, Maria Sandkvist, Wim G. J. Hol

Maturation-Induced Cloaking of Neutralization Epitopes on HIV-1 Particles

Amanda S. Joyner, Jordan R. Willis, James E. Crowe Jr., Christopher Aiken

Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Kinase ROP16 Activates STAT3 and STAT6 Resulting in Cytokine Inhibition and Arginase-1-Dependent Growth Control

Barbara A. Butcher, Barbara A. Fox, Leah M. Rommereim, Sung Guk Kim, Kirk J. Maurer, Felix Yarovinsky, De'Broski R. Herbert, David J. Bzik, Eric Y. Denkers

Membrane Remodeling by the Double-Barrel Scaffolding Protein of Poxvirus

Jae-Kyung Hyun, Cathy Accurso, Marcel Hijnen, Philipp Schult, Anne Pettikiriarachchi, Alok K. Mitra, Fasséli Coulibaly

Protease-Sensitive Conformers in Broad Spectrum of Distinct PrPSc Structures in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Are Indicator of Progression Rate

Chae Kim, Tracy Haldiman, Yvonne Cohen, Wei Chen, Janis Blevins, Man-Sun Sy, Mark Cohen, Jiri G. Safar

Vaccinia Virus Protein C6 Is a Virulence Factor that Binds TBK-1 Adaptor Proteins and Inhibits Activation of IRF3 and IRF7

Leonie Unterholzner, Rebecca P. Sumner, Marcin Baran, Hongwei Ren, Daniel S. Mansur, Nollaig M. Bourke, Felix Randow, Geoffrey L. Smith, Andrew G. Bowie

Hsp90 Governs Dispersion and Drug Resistance of Fungal Biofilms

Nicole Robbins, Priya Uppuluri, Jeniel Nett, Ranjith Rajendran, Gordon Ramage, Jose L. Lopez-Ribot, David Andes, Leah E. Cowen

The Trypanosoma cruzi Protease Cruzain Mediates Immune Evasion

Patricia S. Doyle, Yuan M. Zhou, Ivy Hsieh, Doron C. Greenbaum, James H. McKerrow, Juan C. Engel

Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Provide Insights into Nematode-Trap Formation

Jinkui Yang, Lei Wang, Xinglai Ji, Yun Feng, Xiaomin Li, Chenggang Zou, Jianping Xu, Yan Ren, Qili Mi, Junli Wu, Shuqun Liu, Yu Liu, Xiaowei Huang, Haiyan Wang, Xuemei Niu, Juan Li, Lianming Liang, Yanlu Luo, Kaifang Ji, Wei Zhou, Zefen Yu, Guohong Li, Yajun Liu, Lei Li, Min Qiao, Lu Feng, Ke-Qin Zhang

Influenza Virus Ribonucleoprotein Complexes Gain Preferential Access to Cellular Export Machinery through Chromatin Targeting

Geoffrey P. Chase, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Gintautas Zvirblis, Veronika Götz, Thorsten Wolff, Nadia Naffakh, Martin Schwemmle

Alterations in the Aedes aegypti Transcriptome during Infection with West Nile, Dengue and Yellow Fever Viruses

Tonya M. Colpitts, Jonathan Cox, Dana L. Vanlandingham, Fabiana M. Feitosa, Gong Cheng, Sebastian Kurscheid, Penghua Wang, Manoj N. Krishnan, Stephen Higgs, Erol Fikrig

Plasmodium Protease ROM1 Is Important for Proper Formation of the Parasitophorous Vacuole

Iset Medina Vera, Wandy L. Beatty, Photini Sinnis, Kami Kim

An EGF-like Protein Forms a Complex with PfRh5 and Is Required for Invasion of Human Erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum

Lin Chen, Sash Lopaticki, David T. Riglar, Chaitali Dekiwadia, Alex D. Uboldi, Wai-Hong Tham, Matthew T. O'Neill, Dave Richard, Jake Baum, Stuart A. Ralph, Alan F. Cowman

Envelope Deglycosylation Enhances Antigenicity of HIV-1 gp41 Epitopes for Both Broad Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Unmutated Ancestor Antibodies

Ben-Jiang Ma, S. Munir Alam, Eden P. Go, Xiaozhi Lu, Heather Desaire, Georgia D. Tomaras, Cindy Bowman, Laura L. Sutherland, Richard M. Scearce, Sampa Santra, Norman L. Letvin, Thomas B. Kepler, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F. Haynes

A Diverse Population of Cryptococcus gattii Molecular Type VGIII in Southern Californian HIV/AIDS Patients

Edmond J. Byrnes III, Wenjun Li, Ping Ren, Yonathan Lewit, Kerstin Voelz, James A. Fraser, Fred S. Dietrich, Robin C. May, Sudha Chatuverdi, Vishnu Chatuverdi, Joseph Heitman

Significant Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on Global Gene Expression in Brain Tissues of Patients with HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

Alejandra Borjabad, Susan Morgello, Wei Chao, Seon-Young Kim, Andrew I. Brooks, Jacinta Murray, Mary Jane Potash, David J. Volsky

Th2-polarised PrP-specific Transgenic T-cells Confer Partial Protection against Murine Scrapie

Saci Iken, Véronique Bachy, Pauline Gourdain, Annick Lim, Sylvie Grégoire, Thomas Chaigneau, Pierre Aucouturier, Claude Carnaud

c-di-AMP Is a New Second Messenger in Staphylococcus aureus with a Role in Controlling Cell Size and Envelope Stress

Rebecca M. Corrigan, James C. Abbott, Heike Burhenne, Volkhard Kaever, Angelika Gründling

The Fecal Viral Flora of Wild Rodents

Tung G. Phan, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Chunlin Wang, Robert K. Rose, Howard L. Lipton, Eric L. Delwart

Genomic Insights into the Origin of Parasitism in the Emerging Plant Pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

Taisei Kikuchi, James A. Cotton, Jonathan J. Dalzell, Koichi Hasegawa, Natsumi Kanzaki, Paul McVeigh, Takuma Takanashi, Isheng J. Tsai, Samuel A. Assefa, Peter J. A. Cock, Thomas Dan Otto, Martin Hunt, Adam J. Reid, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Kazuko Tsuchihara, Toshiro Yokoi, Mattias C. Larsson, Johji Miwa, Aaron G. Maule, Norio Sahashi, John T. Jones, Matthew Berriman

Hostile Takeover by Plasmodium: Reorganization of Parasite and Host Cell Membranes during Liver Stage Egress

Stefanie Graewe, Kathleen E. Rankin, Christine Lehmann, Christina Deschermeier, Leonie Hecht, Ulrike Froehlke, Rebecca R. Stanway, Volker Heussler

Transmission Characteristics of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic: Comparison of 8 Southern Hemisphere Countries

Lulla Opatowski, Christophe Fraser, Jamie Griffin, Eric de Silva, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Emily J. Lyons, Simon Cauchemez, Neil M. Ferguson

Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) Shapes Both Innate and CD8+ T Cell Immune Responses against West Nile Virus Infection

James D. Brien, Stephane Daffis, Helen M. Lazear, Hyelim Cho, Mehul S. Suthar, Michael Gale Jr., Michael S. Diamond

HTLV-1 Propels Thymic Human T Cell Development in “Human Immune System” Rag2-/- gamma c-/- Mice

Julien Villaudy, Mélanie Wencker, Nicolas Gadot, Nicolas A. Gillet, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Louis Gazzolo, Markus G. Manz, Charles R. M. Bangham, Madeleine Duc Dodon

Impairment of Immunoproteasome Function by β5i/LMP7 Subunit Deficiency Results in Severe Enterovirus Myocarditis

Elisa Opitz, Annett Koch, Karin Klingel, Frank Schmidt, Stefan Prokop, Anna Rahnefeld, Martina Sauter, Frank L. Heppner, Uwe Völker, Reinhard Kandolf, Ulrike Kuckelkorn, Karl Stangl, Elke Krüger, Peter M. Kloetzel, Antje Voigt

Helicobacter pylori Exploits a Unique Repertoire of Type IV Secretion System Components for Pilus Assembly at the Bacteria-Host Cell Interface

Carrie L. Shaffer, Jennifer A. Gaddy, John T. Loh, Elizabeth M. Johnson, Salisha Hill, Ewa E. Hennig, Mark S. McClain, W. Hayes McDonald, Timothy L. Cover

Burkholderia cenocepacia BC2L-C Is a Super Lectin with Dual Specificity and Proinflammatory Activity

Ondřej Šulák, Gianluca Cioci, Emilie Lameignère, Viviane Balloy, Adam Round, Irina Gutsche, Lenka Malinovská, Michel Chignard, Paul Kosma, Daniel F. Aubert, Cristina L. Marolda, Miguel A. Valvano, Michaela Wimmerová, Anne Imberty

Sequential Bottlenecks Drive Viral Evolution in Early Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Rowena A. Bull, Fabio Luciani, Kerensa McElroy, Silvana Gaudieri, Son T. Pham, Abha Chopra, Barbara Cameron, Lisa Maher, Gregory J. Dore, Peter A. White, Andrew R. Lloyd