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Table of Contents: March 2012

COVER

The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans alkalinizes the local extracellular environment.

Image Credit: François Mayer, Bernhard Hube, and Duncan Wilson, Department of Microbial Pathogenicity Mechanisms, Hans-Knoell-Institute
Issue Image

Two colonies of C. albicans grown for 19 days on GM-bromocresol green agar, pH 4. The fungus actively raises the pH of its surrounding environment. This alkalinization converts the normally dull green medium to a strong teal blue, whilst the filamentous fringes of the colonies (white) extend away from each other (see Mayer et al., doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002592).

Opinion

An Entomopathogenic Nematode by Any Other Name

Adler R. Dillman, John M. Chaston, Byron J. Adams, Todd A. Ciche, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, S. Patricia Stock, Paul W. Sternberg

Pearls

A Foot in the Door for Dermatophyte Research

Rebecca Rashid Achterman, Theodore C. White

New Insights into Blastocystis spp.: A Potential Link with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Philippe Poirier, Ivan Wawrzyniak, Christian P. Vivarès, Frédéric Delbac, Hicham El Alaoui

Research Articles

In Situ Microscopy Analysis Reveals Local Innate Immune Response Developed around Brucella Infected Cells in Resistant and Susceptible Mice

Richard Copin, Marie-Alice Vitry, Delphine Hanot Mambres, Arnaud Machelart, Carl De Trez, Jean-Marie Vanderwinden, Stefan Magez, Shizuo Akira, Bernhard Ryffel, Yves Carlier, Jean-Jacques Letesson, Eric Muraille

C. elegans Germ Cells Show Temperature and Age-Dependent Expression of Cer1, a Gypsy/Ty3-Related Retrotransposon

Shannon Dennis, Ujwal Sheth, Jessica L. Feldman, Kathryn A. English, James R. Priess

A Novel Mouse Model of Schistosoma haematobium Egg-Induced Immunopathology

Chi-Ling Fu, Justin I. Odegaard, De'Broski R. Herbert, Michael H. Hsieh

HIV-1 Superinfection in Women Broadens and Strengthens the Neutralizing Antibody Response

Valerie Cortez, Katherine Odem-Davis, R. Scott McClelland, Walter Jaoko, Julie Overbaugh

Virulence Regulator EspR of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is a Nucleoid-Associated Protein

Benjamin Blasco, Jeffrey M. Chen, Ruben Hartkoorn, Claudia Sala, Swapna Uplekar, Jacques Rougemont, Florence Pojer, Stewart T. Cole

Shiga Toxin 1 Induces on Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Astrocytes the Release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha that Alter Brain-Like Endothelium Integrity

Verónica I. Landoni, Pablo Schierloh, Marcelo de Campos Nebel, Gabriela C. Fernández, Cecilia Calatayud, María J. Lapponi, Martín A. Isturiz

Anthrax Lethal Factor Cleavage of Nlrp1 Is Required for Activation of the Inflammasome

Jonathan L. Levinsohn, Zachary L. Newman, Kristina A. Hellmich, Rasem Fattah, Matthew A. Getz, Shihui Liu, Inka Sastalla, Stephen H. Leppla, Mahtab Moayeri

Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia Differing in Host Range and Transmission Strategy

Adam James Reid, Sarah J. Vermont, James A. Cotton, David Harris, Grant A. Hill-Cawthorne, Stephanie Könen-Waisman, Sophia M. Latham, Tobias Mourier, Rebecca Norton, Michael A. Quail, Mandy Sanders, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam, Amandeep Sohal, James D. Wasmuth, Brian Brunk, Michael E. Grigg, Jonathan C. Howard, John Parkinson, David S. Roos, Alexander J. Trees, Matthew Berriman, Arnab Pain, Jonathan M. Wastling

Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

Rushika Perera, Catherine Riley, Giorgis Isaac, Amber S. Hopf-Jannasch, Ronald J. Moore, Karl W. Weitz, Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic, Thomas O. Metz, Jiri Adamec, Richard J. Kuhn

Mannose Binding Lectin Is Required for Alphavirus-Induced Arthritis/Myositis

Bronwyn M. Gunn, Thomas E. Morrison, Alan C. Whitmore, Lance K. Blevins, Linda Hueston, Robert J. Fraser, Lara J. Herrero, Ruben Ramirez, Paul N. Smith, Suresh Mahalingam, Mark T. Heise

A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Tetherin Promotes Retrovirus Restriction In Vivo

Bradley S. Barrett, Diana S. Smith, Sam X. Li, Kejun Guo, Kim J. Hasenkrug, Mario L. Santiago

The Core Protein of Classical Swine Fever Virus Is Dispensable for Virus Propagation In Vitro

Christiane Riedel, Benjamin Lamp, Manuela Heimann, Matthias König, Sandra Blome, Volker Moennig, Christian Schüttler, Heinz-Jürgen Thiel, Tillmann Rümenapf

Direct Recognition of Fusobacterium nucleatum by the NK Cell Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor NKp46 Aggravates Periodontal Disease

Stella Chaushu, Asaf Wilensky, Chamutal Gur, Lior Shapira, Moran Elboim, Gili Halftek, David Polak, Hagit Achdout, Gilad Bachrach, Ofer Mandelboim

Peptidoglycan-Modifying Enzyme Pgp1 Is Required for Helical Cell Shape and Pathogenicity Traits in Campylobacter jejuni

Emilisa Frirdich, Jacob Biboy, Calvin Adams, Jooeun Lee, Jeremy Ellermeier, Lindsay Davis Gielda, Victor J. DiRita, Stephen E. Girardin, Waldemar Vollmer, Erin C. Gaynor

Multiple Peptidoglycan Modification Networks Modulate Helicobacter pylori's Cell Shape, Motility, and Colonization Potential

Laura K. Sycuro, Timna J. Wyckoff, Jacob Biboy, Petra Born, Zachary Pincus, Waldemar Vollmer, Nina R. Salama

Inactivation of Staphylococcal Phenol Soluble Modulins by Serum Lipoprotein Particles

Bas G. J. Surewaard, Reindert Nijland, András N. Spaan, John A. W. Kruijtzer, Carla J. C. de Haas, Jos A. G. van Strijp

Induced Release of a Plant-Defense Volatile ‘Deceptively’ Attracts Insect Vectors to Plants Infected with a Bacterial Pathogen

Rajinder S. Mann, Jared G. Ali, Sara L. Hermann, Siddharth Tiwari, Kirsten S. Pelz-Stelinski, Hans T. Alborn, Lukasz L. Stelinski

A Peptidoglycan Fragment Triggers β-lactam Resistance in Bacillus licheniformis

Ana Amoroso, Julien Boudet, Stéphanie Berzigotti, Valérie Duval, Nathalie Teller, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, André Luxen, Jean-Pierre Simorre, Bernard Joris

E2F1 Mediated Apoptosis Induced by the DNA Damage Response Is Blocked by EBV Nuclear Antigen 3C in Lymphoblastoid Cells

Abhik Saha, Jie Lu, Lise Morizur, Santosh K. Upadhyay, Mahadesh Prasad AJ, Erle S. Robertson

Stage Specific Assessment of Candida albicans Phagocytosis by Macrophages Identifies Cell Wall Composition and Morphogenesis as Key Determinants

Leanne E. Lewis, Judith M. Bain, Christina Lowes, Collette Gillespie, Fiona M. Rudkin, Neil A. R. Gow, Lars-Peter Erwig

HMOX1 Gene Promoter Alleles and High HO-1 Levels Are Associated with Severe Malaria in Gambian Children

Michael Walther, Adam De Caul, Peter Aka, Madi Njie, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Brigitte Walther, Irene M. Predazzi, Aubrey Cunnington, Susanne Deininger, Ebako N. Takem, Augustine Ebonyi, Sebastian Weis, Robert Walton, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Giorgio Sirugo, Scott M. Williams, David J. Conway

Nasal Acai Polysaccharides Potentiate Innate Immunity to Protect against Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Infections

Jerod A. Skyberg, MaryClare F. Rollins, Jeff S. Holderness, Nicole L. Marlenee, Igor A. Schepetkin, Andrew Goodyear, Steven W. Dow, Mark A. Jutila, David W. Pascual

The Novel Candida albicans Transporter Dur31 Is a Multi-Stage Pathogenicity Factor

François L. Mayer, Duncan Wilson, Ilse D. Jacobsen, Pedro Miramón, Katharina Große, Bernhard Hube

Inflammation and Disintegration of Intestinal Villi in an Experimental Model for Vibrio parahaemolyticus-Induced Diarrhea

Jennifer M. Ritchie, Haopeng Rui, Xiaohui Zhou, Tetsuya Iida, Toshio Kodoma, Susuma Ito, Brigid M. Davis, Roderick T. Bronson, Matthew K. Waldor

TGF-β1 Down-Regulation of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP Expression on Human NK Cells Contributes to HBV Persistence

Cheng Sun, Binqing Fu, Yufeng Gao, Xiaofeng Liao, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian, Haiming Wei

Whole Genome Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 Reveals the Impact of Early Minor Variants Upon Immune Recognition During Acute Infection

Matthew R. Henn, Christian L. Boutwell, Patrick Charlebois, Niall J. Lennon, Karen A. Power, Alexander R. Macalalad, Aaron M. Berlin, Christine M. Malboeuf, Elizabeth M. Ryan, Sante Gnerre, Michael C. Zody, Rachel L. Erlich, Lisa M. Green, Andrew Berical, Yaoyu Wang, Monica Casali, Hendrik Streeck, Allyson K. Bloom, Tim Dudek, Damien Tully, Ruchi Newman, Karen L. Axten, Adrianne D. Gladden, Laura Battis, Michael Kemper, Qiandong Zeng, Terrance P. Shea, Sharvari Gujja, Carmen Zedlack, Olivier Gasser, Christian Brander, Christoph Hess, Huldrych F. Günthard, Zabrina L. Brumme, Chanson J. Brumme, Suzane Bazner, Jenna Rychert, Jake P. Tinsley, Ken H. Mayer, Eric Rosenberg, Florencia Pereyra, Joshua Z. Levin, Sarah K. Young, Heiko Jessen, Marcus Altfeld, Bruce W. Birren, Bruce D. Walker, Todd M. Allen

Differential Function of Lip Residues in the Mechanism and Biology of an Anthrax Hemophore

MarCia T. Ekworomadu, Catherine B. Poor, Cedric P. Owens, Miriam A. Balderas, Marian Fabian, John S. Olson, Frank Murphy, Erol Balkabasi, Erin S. Honsa, Chuan He, Celia W. Goulding, Anthony W. Maresso

Significant Association of KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 Combination with Cerebral Malaria and Implications for Co-evolution of KIR and HLA

Kouyuki Hirayasu, Jun Ohashi, Koichi Kashiwase, Hathairad Hananantachai, Izumi Naka, Atsuko Ogawa, Minoko Takanashi, Masahiro Satake, Kazunori Nakajima, Peter Parham, Hisashi Arase, Katsushi Tokunaga, Jintana Patarapotikul, Toshio Yabe

Influenza A Virus Infection of Human Primary Dendritic Cells Impairs Their Ability to Cross-Present Antigen to CD8 T Cells

Anna Smed-Sörensen, Cécile Chalouni, Bithi Chatterjee, Lillian Cohn, Peter Blattmann, Norihiro Nakamura, Lélia Delamarre, Ira Mellman

Capsule Type of Streptococcus pneumoniae Determines Growth Phenotype

Lucy J. Hathaway, Silvio D. Brugger, Brigitte Morand, Mathieu Bangert, Jeannine U. Rotzetter, Christoph Hauser, Werner A. Graber, Suzanna Gore, Aras Kadioglu, Kathrin Mühlemann

Metabolism of Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα-Dependent PI4P Is Subverted by HCV and Is Targeted by a 4-Anilino Quinazoline with Antiviral Activity

Annalisa Bianco, Veronica Reghellin, Lorena Donnici, Simone Fenu, Reinaldo Alvarez, Chiara Baruffa, Francesco Peri, Massimiliano Pagani, Sergio Abrignani, Petra Neddermann, Raffaele De Francesco

Human Cytomegalovirus Clinical Strain-Specific microRNA miR-UL148D Targets the Human Chemokine RANTES during Infection

Youngkyun Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Sungchul Kim, Donghyun Kim, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Kwangseog Ahn

Phosphorylcholine Allows for Evasion of Bactericidal Antibody by Haemophilus influenzae

Sarah E. Clark, Julian Snow, Jianjun Li, Tracey A. Zola, Jeffrey N. Weiser

Structural Insights into a Unique Legionella pneumophila Effector LidA Recognizing Both GDP and GTP Bound Rab1 in Their Active State

Wei Cheng, Kun Yin, Defen Lu, Bingqing Li, Deyu Zhu, Yuzhen Chen, Hao Zhang, Sujuan Xu, Jijie Chai, Lichuan Gu

PK-sensitive PrPSc Is Infectious and Shares Basic Structural Features with PK-resistant PrPSc

Gustavo Sajnani, Christopher J. Silva, Adriana Ramos, Miguel A. Pastrana, Bruce C. Onisko, Melissa L. Erickson, Elizabeth M. Antaki, Irina Dynin, Ester Vázquez-Fernández, Christina J. Sigurdson, J. Mark Carter, Jesús R. Requena

Fungal-Induced Cell Cycle Impairment, Chromosome Instability and Apoptosis via Differential Activation of NF-κB

Mariem Ben-Abdallah, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Patrick Avé, Anne Louise, Frédérique Moyrand, Falk Weih, Guilhem Janbon, Sylvie Mémet

Critical Role of Perforin-dependent CD8+ T Cell Immunity for Rapid Protective Vaccination in a Murine Model for Human Smallpox

Melanie Kremer, Yasemin Suezer, Asisa Volz, Theresa Frenz, Monir Majzoub, Kay-Martin Hanschmann, Michael H. Lehmann, Ulrich Kalinke, Gerd Sutter

LEDGF/p75-Independent HIV-1 Replication Demonstrates a Role for HRP-2 and Remains Sensitive to Inhibition by LEDGINs

Rik Schrijvers, Jan De Rijck, Jonas Demeulemeester, Noritaka Adachi, Sofie Vets, Keshet Ronen, Frauke Christ, Frederic D. Bushman, Zeger Debyser, Rik Gijsbers

Redundant Notch1 and Notch2 Signaling Is Necessary for IFNγ Secretion by T Helper 1 Cells During Infection with Leishmania major

Floriane Auderset, Steffen Schuster, Manuel Coutaz, Ute Koch, Florian Desgranges, Estelle Merck, H. Robson MacDonald, Freddy Radtke, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier

Visualization and Measurement of ATP Levels in Living Cells Replicating Hepatitis C Virus Genome RNA

Tomomi Ando, Hiromi Imamura, Ryosuke Suzuki, Hideki Aizaki, Toshiki Watanabe, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuro Suzuki

Identification of O-mannosylated Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis

Alfonso Fernández-Álvarez, Miriam Marín-Menguiano, Daniel Lanver, Alberto Jiménez-Martín, Alberto Elías-Villalobos, Antonio J. Pérez-Pulido, Regine Kahmann, José I. Ibeas

Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus Upregulates Aurora A Expression to Promote p53 Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation

Qiliang Cai, Bingyi Xiao, Huaxin Si, Amanda Cervini, Jianming Gao, Jie Lu, Santosh K. Upadhyay, Suhbash C. Verma, Erle S. Robertson

Short ORF-Dependent Ribosome Shunting Operates in an RNA Picorna-Like Virus and a DNA Pararetrovirus that Cause Rice Tungro Disease

Mikhail M. Pooggin, Rajendran Rajeswaran, Mikhail V. Schepetilnikov, Lyubov A. Ryabova

Influenza Virus Respiratory Infection and Transmission Following Ocular Inoculation in Ferrets

Jessica A. Belser, Kortney M. Gustin, Taronna R. Maines, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Jacqueline M. Katz, Terrence M. Tumpey

A20 (Tnfaip3) Deficiency in Myeloid Cells Protects against Influenza A Virus Infection

Jonathan Maelfait, Kenny Roose, Pieter Bogaert, Mozes Sze, Xavier Saelens, Manolis Pasparakis, Isabelle Carpentier, Geert van Loo, Rudi Beyaert