NOX2 staining around the rim of a spongiform vacuole in prion disease.
NOX3 staining in brown, nuclei staining in blue. Spongiform vacuolation is a highly characteristic sign of prion disease pathology, and vacuoles represent distended intracellular compartments mostly located within neuronal processes. A very striking pattern of NOX2 expression around neuronal vacuoles can be detected in brains of patients affected by Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. Data from Adriano Aguzzi and colleagues suggest that NOX2 is a major source of reactive oxygen species in prion diseases, and can affect prion pathogenesis.
Image Credit: Silvia Sorce et al.