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Research Article

Stochastic Processes Are Key Determinants of Short-Term Evolution in Influenza A Virus

  • Martha I Nelson,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Lone Simonsen,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Cecile Viboud,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mark A Miller,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jill Taylor,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Kirsten St George,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Sara B Griesemer,

    Affiliation: Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America

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  • Elodie Ghedin,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Naomi A Sengamalay,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David J Spiro,

    Affiliation: The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Igor Volkov,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Bryan T Grenfell,

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David J Lipman,

    Affiliation: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jeffery K Taubenberger,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Edward C Holmes mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ech15@psu.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: December 01, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020125

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