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Research Article

HIV-1 Vpr Triggers Natural Killer Cell–Mediated Lysis of Infected Cells through Activation of the ATR-Mediated DNA Damage Response

  • Jeffrey Ward,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

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  • Zachary Davis,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Jason DeHart,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Erik Zimmerman,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Alberto Bosque,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Enrico Brunetta,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio di Immunologia Sperimentale, IRCCS, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Milano), Italy

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  • Domenico Mavilio,

    Affiliation: Laboratorio di Immunologia Sperimentale, IRCCS, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Milano), Italy

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  • Vicente Planelles equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Vicente Planelles, Edward Barker

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America

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  • Edward Barker equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Vicente Planelles, Edward Barker

    Edward_Barker@rush.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Published: October 02, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000613

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