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Research Article

Induction of Noxa-Mediated Apoptosis by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Depends on Viral Recognition by Cytosolic Helicases, Leading to IRF-3/IFN-β-Dependent Induction of Pro-Apoptotic Noxa

  • Pedro Eitz Ferrer,

    Affiliations: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Stephanie Potthoff,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Susanne Kirschnek,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Georg Gasteiger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Virology and Clinical Cooperation Group “Antigen-specific Immunotherapy”, TechnischeUniversitätMünchen and Helmholtz ZentrumMünchen, Munich, Germany

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  • Wolfgang Kastenmüller,

    Affiliation: Institute of Virology and Clinical Cooperation Group “Antigen-specific Immunotherapy”, TechnischeUniversitätMünchen and Helmholtz ZentrumMünchen, Munich, Germany

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  • Holger Ludwig,

    Affiliation: Division of Virology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany

    Current address: Meyer-Dulheuer & Partner, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

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  • Stefan A. Paschen,

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Andreas Villunger,

    Affiliation: Division of Developmental Immunology, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria

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  • Gerd Sutter,

    Affiliations: Division of Virology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany

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  • Ingo Drexler,

    Affiliation: Institute of Virology and Clinical Cooperation Group “Antigen-specific Immunotherapy”, TechnischeUniversitätMünchen and Helmholtz ZentrumMünchen, Munich, Germany

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  • Georg Häcker mail

    georg.haecker@uniklinik-freiburg.de

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Published: June 16, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002083

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