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Research Article

On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos

  • Sabrina Krief equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Sabrina Krief, Ananias A. Escalante

    Affiliation: UMR 7206-USM 104, Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

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  • Ananias A. Escalante equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Sabrina Krief, Ananias A. Escalante

    Ananias.Escalante@asu.edu (AAE); georges.snounou@upmc.fr or gsnounou@gmail.com (GS)

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • M. Andreina Pacheco,

    Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Lawrence Mugisha,

    Affiliation: Chimpanzee Sanctuary & Wildlife Conservation Trust (CSWCT), Entebbe, Uganda

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  • Claudine André,

    Affiliation: Lola Ya Bonobo Bonobo Sanctuary, “Petites Chutes de la Lukaya”, Kimwenza–Mont Ngafula, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

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  • Michel Halbwax,

    Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Anne Fischer,

    Affiliation: Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

    Current address: African Insect Science for Food and Health, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Jean-Michel Krief,

    Affiliation: Projet pour la Conservation des Grands Singes, Paris, France

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  • John M. Kasenene,

    Affiliation: Department of Botany, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Makerere University Biological Field Station, Fort Portal, Uganda

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  • Mike Crandfield,

    Affiliation: Research and Conservation Program, The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Omar E. Cornejo,

    Affiliation: Emory University, Program in Population Biology, Ecology, and Evolution, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Jean-Marc Chavatte,

    Affiliation: USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

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  • Clara Lin,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore

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  • Franck Letourneur,

    Affiliation: Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

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  • Anne Charlotte Grüner,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

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  • Thomas F. McCutchan,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Laurent Rénia,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), Paris, France; INSERM U567, Paris, France

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  • Georges Snounou mail

    Ananias.Escalante@asu.edu (AAE); georges.snounou@upmc.fr or gsnounou@gmail.com (GS)

    Affiliations: USM0307, Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore, INSERM UMR S 945, Paris, France, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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  • Published: February 12, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000765

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