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Research Article

The CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitory Pathways Independently Regulate Host Resistance to Plasmodium-induced Acute Immune Pathology

  • Julius Clemence R. Hafalla mail,

    Julius.Hafalla@lshtm.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Carla Claser,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore

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  • Kevin N. Couper,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Georges Emile Grau,

    Affiliation: Vascular Immunology Unit, Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia

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  • Laurent Renia,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Malaria Immunobiology, Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore

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  • J. Brian de Souza equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Brian de Souza, Eleanor M. Riley

    Affiliations: Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London Medical School, London, United Kingdom

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  • Eleanor M. Riley equal contributor

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: J. Brian de Souza, Eleanor M. Riley

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Infection, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: February 02, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002504

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