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Research Article

Transmission of Equine Influenza Virus during an Outbreak Is Characterized by Frequent Mixed Infections and Loose Transmission Bottlenecks

  • Joseph Hughes,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Richard C. Allen,

    Affiliation: Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Marc Baguelin,

    Affiliations: Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom, Centre for Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Katie Hampson,

    Affiliation: Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

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  • Gregory J. Baillie,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Debra Elton,

    Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, United Kingdom

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  • J. Richard Newton,

    Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, United Kingdom

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  • Paul Kellam,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • James L. N. Wood,

    Affiliation: Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Edward C. Holmes,

    Affiliations: Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Fogarty International Center, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Pablo R. Murcia mail

    Pablo.Murcia@Glasgow.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Published: December 20, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003081

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