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Research Article

Human Tetherin Exerts Strong Selection Pressure on the HIV-1 Group N Vpu Protein

  • Daniel Sauter,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Daniel Unterweger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Michael Vogl,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Shariq M. Usmani,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Anke Heigele,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Silvia F. Kluge,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Elisabeth Hermkes,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Markus Moll,

    Affiliation: Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Edward Barker,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Martine Peeters,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Retrovirus UMR145, IRD and Université Montpellier, BP64501, Montpellier, France

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  • Gerald H. Learn,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Frederic Bibollet-Ruche,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Joëlle V. Fritz,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Oliver T. Fackler,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

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  • Beatrice H. Hahn,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Frank Kirchhoff mail

    frank.kirchhoff@uni-ulm.de

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

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  • Published: December 20, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003093

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