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Research Article

A Paradigm for Virus–Host Coevolution: Sequential Counter-Adaptations between Endogenous and Exogenous Retroviruses

  • Frederick Arnaud,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Marco Caporale,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Mariana Varela,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Roman Biek,

    Affiliation: Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Bernardo Chessa,

    Affiliation: Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

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  • Alberto Alberti,

    Affiliation: Sezione di Malattie Infettive del Dipartimento di Patologia e Clinica Veterinaria, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

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  • Matthew Golder,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Manuela Mura,

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Ya-ping Zhang,

    Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China

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  • Li Yu,

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bioresources, Yunnan University, Kunming, China

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  • Filipe Pereira,

    Affiliations: Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

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  • James C DeMartini,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

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  • Kreg Leymaster,

    Affiliation: United States Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America

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  • Thomas E Spencer,

    Affiliation: Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America

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  • Massimo Palmarini mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: m.palmarini@vet.gla.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, Scotland

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  • Published: November 09, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030170

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