All infectious processes depend at some level on dose. In this Opinion, M. Gabriela Gomes and colleagues present evidence supporting a shift to a dose-dimension paradigm in infectious disease science and community health and discuss implications for natural transmission, experimental challenge, and classification of intervention effects.
Vector control is a key element in control strategies for many diseases. Genetically modified (GM) vectors offer new approaches that can be integrated with existing methods. In this Pearl, Luke Alphey and Nina Alphey provide an introduction to the subject, summarizing the state of research in the field and the applications and limitations of genetic modification for vector control.
Symptoms of cerebral malaria (CM) are caused by both parasites and the host immune response. Lena Serghides and colleagues tested the use of PPARγ agonists, known to have anti-inflammatory properties, in conjunction with anti-malarial drugs on mice and found that combining the two therapies protected mice with CM from brain atrophy and cognitive impairment.
Mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT) of HIV is a serious global health concern, with over 300,000 children newly infected in 2011. However, studies have shown that MTIT of SIV is rare in natural hosts like Sooty Mangabeys. Ann Chahroudi, Guido Silvestri, and colleagues provide evidence that target cell restriction is the main mechanism that restricts MTIT in these monkeys.
Influenza A H1N1 is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and considerable attention has been given to its drug resistant evolution. A recently published perspective in PLOS Genetics by Jeffrey Jensen and colleagues discusses a novel population-genetic approach used to illustrate the available mutational paths to drug resistance. This research offers insight into adaptation in a viral population.
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The new PLOS Data Policy requires all submitting authors to include a data availability statement as of March 1, 2014. Read more about what this means and see the policy itself in this cross-PLOS Editorial from Theo Bloom and colleagues.
Image Credit: Jonathan Gray, Wikimedia Commons